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FOUNDED MAY 29, 1874 

(Incorporated 1904) 


Thirty-second Session, 1905-1906. 





Price One Guinea net. 


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FOUNDED MAY 29, 1874 

(Incorporated 1904) 


Thirty-second Session, 1905-1906. 





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“ Development of thf. Resources of 

THE Organ.” 

By Thomas Casson . . . 

• a • 


“ Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schutz.” By 

E. W. Naylor, M.A., Mus.D. Cantab. . 


“ Mozart’s Early Efforts in Opera.” 

By Clifford 

B. Edgar, B.Sc., Mus.B. Lond. 

• • • 

4 .? 

“ Leonardo Leo.” By Edward J. 

Dent, M.A., 

Mus.B. Cantab 

• • ■ 


“ German Hymnody from the Twelfth to the 

Middle of the Seventeenth Century.” By the 

Rev. G. R. Woodward, M.A. 

• • • 

_Z 3 

“The Function op the Organ in Accom - 
panying Choral and Orchestral Works,” By 

H. Heathcote Statham 


“The Study of the History of Music.” By 

Frederick G. Shinn, Mus.D. Dunelm. 


“ Prolegomena to Musical Criticism.” By Percy 

C. Buck, M.A., Mus.D. Oxon 


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F. 12746. 


Pursuant to Section 23 of the Companies Act, 1867. 

WHEREAS it has been proved to the Board of Trade 
that The Musical Association (Incorporated 1904) which 
is about to be registered under the Companies Acts, 1862 to 
1900, as an Association limited by guarantee, is formed for the 
purpose of promoting objects of the nature contemplated by 
the 23rd Section of the Companies Act, 1867, and that it is 
the intention of the said Association that the income and 
property of the Association whencesoever derived shall be 
applied solely towards the promotion of the objects of the 
Association as set forth in the Memorandum of Association of 
the said Association and that no portion thereof shall be paid 
or transferred directly or indirectly by way of dividend or 
bonus or otherwise howsoever by way of profit to the members 
of the said Association. 

NOW THEREFORE the Board of Trade in pursuance 
of the powers in them vested and in consideration of the 
provisions and subject to the conditions contained in the 
Memorandum of Association of the said Association as 
subscribed by seven members thereof on the 14th day of June, 
1904, do by this their Licence direct The Musical Association 
(Incorporated 1904) to be registered with limited liability 
without the addition of the word “ Limited ” to its name. 

Signed by Order of the Board of Trade this 17th day of 
June, 1904. 


An Assistant Secretary to the Board of Trade. 

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Certificate of 3ncorporation. 

3 thereby Certify that the musical 

Association {Incorporated 1904) the word Limited 
being omitted by Licence of the Board of Trade is 
this day Incorporated under the Companies Acts, 1862 
to 1900, and that the Company is Limited. 

Given under my hand at London this Twenty- 
second day of June, One Thousand Nine Hundred 
and Four. 


Registrar of foint Stock Companies. 

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The Companies Acts, 1862 to igoo. 

2n^moranbum of ^Jssodatton 



(Incorporated 1904). 

1. The name of the Company is “ The Musical Associa- 
tion (Incorporated 1904).’’ 

2. The registered office of the Company shall be situated in 

3. The objects for which The Musical Association (Incor- 
porated 1904) is established are to do all or any of the following 
things for the purpose of attaining the objects so far as 
allowed by law, and observing and performing whatever may 
be required by law in order legally to carry out such objects — 

(a) The reading of papers on subjects connected with the 
art, science, theory, practice, composition, acoustics, 
history of music and the construction of musical 
instruments, with discussion of these subjects and 
the giving of illustrations in reference to the papers 

(b) To compile, publish and distribute a report of the 
papers read or abstracts of the same, and abstracts of 
the discussions in the form of a volume of 
“ Proceedings,” together with a list of the Council, 
officers and members, and a report of the progress of 
the Association for the year. 

(c) To establish, subsidise, promote, co-opeiate with, 
receive into union, become a member of, act or 
appoint trustees, agents or delegates for, control, 
manage, superintend, provide monetary assistance to 
or otherwise assist any associations, societies and 
institutions, incorporated or not incorporated, with 
objects altogether or in part similar to those of The 
Musical Association. 

(d) To give monetary assistance to any person or persons 
for the purpose of carrying out investigations of such 
subjects as are specified in paragraph (a) and are 
cognate thereto. 

(e) To acquire offices, halls and other places of meeting, 
and to form libraries of books and music for the use 
of the members. 

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(f) To invest all moneys of the Association not imme- 

diately required in such legal securities, or otherwise 
in such manner as may from time to time be 

(g) To do all other cognate and lawful things as are 
incidental to the attainment of the above objects. 
Provided that in case the Association shall take or 
hold any property subject to the jurisdiction of the 
Charity Commissioners for England and Wales, the 
Association shall not sell, mortgage, charge or lease 
such property without such consent as may be 
required by law ; and as regards any such property, 
the managers or trustees of the Association shall be 
chargeable for such property as may come into their 
hands, and shall be answerable and accountable for 
their own acts, receipts, neglects, and defaults, and 
for the due administration of such property in the 
same manner and to the same extent as they would, 
as such managers or trustees, have been if no 
incorporation had been effected ; and the incorpora- 
tion of the Association shall not diminish or impair 
any control or authority exerciseable by the Chancery 
Division or the Charity Commissioners over such 
managers or trustees, but they shall, as regards any 
such property, be subject jointly and separately to 
such control and authority as if the Association were 
not incorporated. If the Association take any 
property on special trusts the Association shall only 
deal with such property in accordance with such 

4. The income and property of the Association, whence- 
soever derived, shall be applied solely towards the attainment of 
the objects of the Association as set forth in this Memorandum 
of Association ; and no portion thereof shall be paid or 
transferred, directly or indirectly, by way of dividend, bonus or 
otherwise howsoever by way of profit to the members of the 
Association. Provided that subject to the provisions con- 
tained in clause 6 hereof nothing herein shall prevent the 
payment in good faith, or remuneration to any officer or 
servants of the Association, or subject to the provisions 
hereinafter contained to any member of the Association, or 
other person in return for any services actually rendered to the 

5. The 4th paragraph of this Memorandum is a condition on 
which a licence is granted by the Board of Trade to the 
Association in pursuance of section 23 of the Companies 
Act, 1867. 

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6. If any member of the Association pays or receives any 
dividend, bonus or other profit in contravention of the terms of 
the 4th paragraph of this Memorandum, his liability shall be 

7. Provided further, that no member of the Council or 
governing body of the Association shall be appointed to any 
salaried office or any office paid by fees, and that no 
remuneration shall be given to any member of such Council or 
governing body except repayment of out-of-pocket expenses, 
and interest on money lent or rent for property demised to the 
Association. If any payment shall be made to any member, 
or any act done in contravention of the provisions of this 
clause, the liability shall be unlimited of any member who 
shall receive or make such payment or do such act after he 
has been advised in writing that it is contrary to the provisions 
of this clause. Provided further, that this provision shall not 
apply to any payment to any railway, omnibus, tramway, gas, 
electric lighting, water, cable or telephone company of which 
a member of the Council or governing body may be a member, 
and such member shall not be bound to account for any share 
of profits he may receive in respect of such payment. 

8. Every member of the Association undertakes to contribute 
to the assets of the Association in the event of the same being 
wound up during the time that he is a member, or within one 
year afterwards for payment of the debts and liabilities of the 
Association contracted before the time at which he ceases to 
be a member, and of the costs, charges and expenses of 
winding-up the Association, and for the adjustment of the 
rights of the contributories among themselves, such amount 
as may be required not exceeding £ i sterling, or in case of his 
liability becoming unlimited, such other amount as may be 
required in pursuance of the last preceding paragraph of this 

g. If upon the winding-up or dissolution of the Association 
there remain after the satisfaction of all its debts and 
liabilities any property whatsoever, the same shall not be 
paid to or distributed among the members of the Association, 
but if and so far as effect can be given to the next provision, 
shall be given or transferred to some institution established 
with similar objects, as may be determined by the members of 
the Association at or before the time of dissolution, or in 
default thereof by such Judge of the High Court of Justice as 
may have or acquire jurisdiction in the matter, and if and so 
far as effect cannot be given to such provision then to some 
charitable object. 

10. True accounts shall be kept of the sums of money 
received and expended by the Association and the matter in 

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respect of which such receipt and expenditure takes place, and 
of the property, credits and liabilities of the Association. 
These accounts shall be open to the inspection of the members, 
subject to any reasonable restriction as to the time and manner 
of inspecting the same that may be imposed in accordance 
with the regulations of the Association for the time being. 
Once at least in every year the accounts of the Association 
shall be examined and the correctness ot the balance sheet 
ascertained by one or more properly appointed Auditor or 

Names, Addresses and Description op Subscribers. 

William Hayman Cummings, 

Sydcote, Rosendale Road, West Dulwich, S.E., 

Mus. Doc., Principal of the Guildhall School of Music. 
Joseph Percy Baker, 

289, High Road, Lee, S.E., 

Mus. Bac. Durham. 

Thomas Henry Yorke Trotter, 

103, Holland Road, Kensington, W., 

M.A., Mus. Doc. Oxon. 

Arthur Makinson Fox, 

Brendon, Teddington, Middlesex, 

Mus. Bac. London. 

Charles Maclean, 

62, Drayton Gardens, London, 

M.A. & Mus. Doc. Oxon. 

Thomas Lea Southgate, 

19, Manor Park, Lee, Kent, 


Walter Willson Cobbett, 

40, Sydenham Hill, S.E., 

Director of Public Companies. 

Dated this 14th day of June, 1904. 

Witness to the above Signatures — 

Arthur T. Cummings, 

Abchurch House, 

Sherborne Lane, 

London, E.C., 


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The Companies Acts, 1862 to 1900. 

^Irtidcs of dissociation 



(Incorporated 1904). 

It is agreed as follows — 

1. For the purpose of registration the number of members 
of The Musical Association (Incorporated 1904) is declared 
not to exceed 500. 

2. These Articles shall be construed with reference to 
“The Companies Act, 1862,” and “The Companies Act, 
1867,’’ and the terms used in these Articles shall be taken as 
having the same respective meanings as they have when 
used in those Acts. 

3. The Musical Association (Incorporated 1904) is estab- 
lished for the purposes expressed in the Memorandum of 

4. The Musical Association (Incorporated 1904) shall 
consist of a President, Vice-Presidents, Ordinary Members 
of the Council, Honorary Treasurer, Trustees, Auditors, 
Secretaiy, Members, and Honorary Foreign Members. 

5. All persons shall be eligible for Membership. Admission 
of members shall be by ballot of the members. Every can- 
didate for admission as a member shall be proposed by one 
member, seconded by another, and his name with that of his 
proposer and seconder shall be placed by the Secretary on 
a notice paper which shall be sent to every member of the 
Association seven clear days at least before the next Ordinary 
Meeting. The members assembled at the next Ordinary 
Meeting shall ballot for or against the election of the candidate 
and one black ball in five shall exclude. 

(a) Members shall pay on election either a compounded 
life subscription of ten guineas or a subscription not 
exceeding one guinea, and thereafter an annual 
subscription not exceeding one guinea to be paid on 
the ist of November in each year. Life subscrip- 
tions shall be invested in legal security in the names 
of trustees to be appointed by the Council. The 
same trustees shall have power to hold other sums 
accumulated by or accruing to the Association. The 
amount of the 'annual subscriptions and life sub- 
scriptions may be altered by special resolution only. 

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(b) Honorary membership may be conferred on foreign 
musicians residing abroad and distinguished in the 
art, science or literature of music, on the nomination 
of the Council, subsequently approved by the members 
present at any Ordinary General Meeting of the 
Association. Honorary members shall not be 
entitled to vote at any meeting. 

(c) Any member intending to resign his membership 
shall signify his wish by notice in writing to the 
Secretary on or before the 31st of October in each 
year, otherwise he shall be liable for his subscription 
for the ensuing year. If such subscription be not 
paid on or before the ist day of April following the 
defaulter shall cease to be a member of the Associa- 
tion, and his name shall be erased from the list of 

6. The government and arrangement of the affairs of the 
Association shall be vested in a Council consisting of a 
President, Vice-Presidents, ten ordinary members of the 
Association, with the following honorary officers, viz.: — a 
Treasurer, Trustees, and Auditors. 

(a) The President, Vice-Presidents and five ordinary 
members of the Council shall retire at the end of each 
year. The ordinary members of the Council to retire 
at the end of the first and second year shall be deter- 
mined by ballot, after that the ordinary members 
who have been longest in office shall retire. All who 
have served shall be eligible for re-election. No 
member whose subscription is in arrear shall be 
elected on the Council. 

(b) At Council Meetings four shall form a quorum, and 
the Chairman of the Meeting shall have a casting 
vote in addition to his vote as a member of the 
Council, in the event of the number of votes on a 
division being equal. 

(c) Tbe Council may appoint sub-committees to consider 
and carry out any business committed to them. And 
the Council may appoint such assistants as may be 
required for the business work of the Association, 
and at such remuneration as they shall from time to 
time determine. 

(d) The official seal of the Association shall only be 
affixed to documents ordered to be sealed by a 
resolution of the Council and shall be so affixed in 
the presence of one member of the Council and 
countersigned by the Secretary. 

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7. The first President of the Association shall be Sir Hubert 
Parry, Bart., M.A., D.C.L., Mus. Doc. Oxon., F.R.C.O., Hon. 
R.A.M., L.T.C.L., J.P., Fellow of the University of London, 
Hon. Fell. Exeter College, Oxford, Professor of Music in the 
University of Oxford, and Director of the Royal College of 
Music, if he will consent to act. 

8. The first Council shall consist of the following members 
of the Association or such of them as shall consent to act. 

The Council and officers of The Musical Association for the 
year 1904 : — 


Sir C. Hubert Parry, Bart., M.A., D.C.L., Mus. Doc. Oxon., 
Cantab, et Dublin, Prof. Mus. Univ. Oxf., Director of the 
Royal College of Music. 


Adams, William Grylls, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Professor 
King’s College. 

Barry, C. A., Esq., M.A. 

Bosanquet, R. H. M., Esq., M.A., F.R.A.S., F.C.S. 

Bridge, Sir Frederick, M.V.O., Mus. Doc. Oxon., Organist 
of Westminster Abbey, Gresham Prof, of Music, Prof. 
Mus. Univ. Lond. 

Cummings, W. H., Esq., Mus. D. Dub., F.S.A., Hon. R.A.M., 
Principal Guildhall School of Music. 

Garcia, Manuel, Esq., M.D. (Hon.). 

Goldschmidt, Otto, Esq. 

Macfarren, Walter, Esq. 

Maclean, Charles, Esq., M.A., Mus. Doc. Oxon. 
pRENDERGAST, A. H. D., Esq., M.A. 

Prout, E., Esq., B.A. Lond., Mus. Doc. Dub. et Edin., Prof. 
Mus. Univ. Dub. 

Rayleigh, Rt. Hon. Lord, M.A., F.R.S. 

Stanford, Sir Charles Villiers, Mus. Doc. Cantab, et 
Oxon., M.A., D.C.L., Prof. Mus. Univ. Camb. 

Elected Members. 

Cobbett, W. W., Esq. 

Edgar, Clifford B., Esq., B.Sc., Mus. Bac. Lond. 

Edwards, F". G., Esq., F.R.A.M. 

Maitland, J. A. Fuller, Esq., M.A. 

McNaught, W. G., Esq., F.R.A.M., Mus. Doc. Cantuar, 
Shinn, F. G., Esq., Mus. Doc. Dunelm. 

Southgate, Thomas Lea, Esq. 

Squire, William Barclay, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 
Stainer, J. F. R., Esq., M.A., B.C.L. 

Webb, F. Gilbert, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer, 

Clifford B. Edgar, Esq., Mus. Bac., Wedderlie, Queen’s 
Road, Richmond, Surrey. 

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T rustees. 

Sir Frederick Bridge, M.V.O. 

Otto Goldschmidt, Esq. 

J. F. R. Stainer, Esq., M.A., B.C.L. 

Hon. Auditors. 

David James Blaikley, Esq. 

Dr. C. Bowdler, C.B., &c. 


Arthur T. Cummings, Esq., Abchurch House, 
Sherborne Lane, E.C. 


J. Percy Baker, Esq., 289, High Road, Lee, S.E. 

Offices of the Musical Association, 

Messrs. Broadwood & Sons, Ltd., Conduit Street, W. 

9. The election of members of the Council (in accordance 
with Article 6) and of the Honorary Treasurer and Honorary 
Auditors, shall take place annually at the General Meeting of 
members of the Association. In the event of the death or 
resignation of any member of the Council or any officer, the 
vacancy shall be forthwith filled up by the Council ; subject to 
confirmation, where necessary, at the next General Meeting, 
the persons elected to fill a vacancy shall retire at the date 
when the person in whose place he shall be elected would 
have retired. 

The President and Vice-Presidents shall be elected from 
the members and shall be elected annually at the General 
Meeting by the members of the Association for the time being 
present at such meeting. Members desiring to nominate 
fresh members to serve on the Council shall send the names 
of their nominees with seconders to the Secretary at least 
seven days before the date appointed for the meeting. 

10. The first General Meeting shall be held not less than 
one month nor more than three months after the registration 
of the Memorandum of Association. A General Meeting of 
the members, of which seven clear days’ notice shall be given, 
shall be held annually, when a report of the progress of the 
Association shall be read, the duly audited accounts shall be 
presented, and the election of such officers as are appointed 
annually shall take place. The Ordinary Meetings of the 
members for the reading and discussion of papers, the election 
of members and transaction of other business shall be held as 
often and at such times and places as the Council shall direct. 
Provided that as regards any such meeting at which it is 
proposed to ballot for members or transact business other than 
the reading and discussion of papers the Secretary shall send 
to the members seven clear days' notice stating thereon the 
precise nature of the business to be transacted. 

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11. An Extraordinary General Meeting of the members may 
be called by direction of the Council, or shall be called upon 
requisition signed by not less than 20 members of the 
Association, such direction or requisition stating the object 
for which such meeting is desired ; the Secretary shall forth- 
with issue a notice (together with a copy of the direction or 
requisition) convening an Extraordinary General Meeting of 
members to be held not less than seven or more than 21 days 
after that date. At an Extraordinary General Meeting 
15 members shall form a quorum, and no other business 
than that specified in the direction or requisition shall be 

12. No member whose subscription is in arrear shall be 
entitled to vote at any meeting of the Association. Subject 
to this and the provision that no honorary member shall have 
a vote each member shall have one vote. 

13. Should a question arise as to the conduct of any 
member of the Association, after an opportunity for explana- 
tion has been given to the member, the Council shall inquire 
into the matter, and if deemed desirable by a majority present 
they may expel the member. Any member so expelled shall 
have the right forthwith to appeal to an Extraordinary 
General Meeting, when a majority of two-thirds of those 
present shall be required to confirm the expulsion. 

14. Bye-laws, rules and regulations may from time to time 
be made by the Council for their own government and that of 
the affairs of the Association. The Council may from time to 
time rescind, alter or vary the same. Such bye-laws, rules 
and regulations so made from time to time shall remain in 
force until rescinded or varied : Provided that, except by a 
special resolution, no bye-law, rule or regulation shall be made 
which would amount to such an alteration or addition to the 
Articles as could only legally be made by a special resolution. 

15. The provisions of the Companies Act, 1900, as to audit 
and Auditors shall be observed. 

16. A notice may be served by the Association upon any 
member, either personally or by sending it through the post in 
a prepaid letter addressed to such member at his registered 
place of address. 

17. As regards those members who have no registered 
address in the United Kingdom, a notice posted up in the 
offices of the Association shall be deemed to be well served on 
them at the expiration of twenty-four hours after it is posted up. 

18. Any notice required to be given by the Association 
to the members, or any of them, and not expressly provided 
for by these presents, shall be sufficiently given if given by 

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19. Any notice required to be or which may be given by 
advertisement shall be advertised once in two London 

20. Any notice sent by post shall be deemed to have been 
served on the day following that on which the envelope or 
wrapper containing the same is posted, and in proving such 
service it shall be sufficient to prove that the envelope or 
wrapper containing the notice was properly addressed and put 
into the post office. 

Names, Addresses, and Description of Subscribers. 

William Hayman Cummings, 

Sydcote, Rosendale Road, West Dulwich, S.E., 

Mus. Doc., Principal of the Guildhall School of Music. 
Joseph Percy Baker, 

289, High Road, Lee, S.H., 

Mus. Bac. Durham. 

Thomas Henry Yorke Trotter, 

103, Holland Road, Kensington, W., 

M.A., Mus. Doc. Oxon. 

Arthur Makinson Fox, 

Brendon, Teddington, Middlesex, 

Mus. Bac. London. 

Charles Maclean, 

62, Drayton Gardens, London, 

M.A. & Mus. Doc. Oxon. 

Thomas Lea Southgate, 

19, Manor Park, Lee, Kent, 


Walter Willson Cobbett, 

40, Sydenham Hill, S.E., 

Director of Public Companies. 

Dated this 14th day of June, 1904. 

Witness to the above Signatures — 

Arthur T. Cummings, 

Abchurch House, 

Sherborne Lane, 

London, E.C., 


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FOUNDED MAY 29, 1874 





Sir C. Hubert H. Parry, Bart., C.V.O., M.A., D.C.L., Mus. Doc., Oxon., 
Cantab., Dublin, et Leeds, Prof. Mas. Univ. Oxf., Director of the Royal 
College of Music. 


Adams, William Grylls, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Professor King’s College. 
Barry, C. A., Esq., M.A. 

Bosanquet, R. H. M., Esq., M.A., F.R.A.S., F.C.S. 

Bridge, Sir Frederick, M.V.O., M.A., Mus. Doc., Oxon., Organist of 
Westminster Abbey, Gresham Prof, of Music., Prof. Mus. Univ. Lend. 
Cummings, W. H., Esq., Mus.D., Dub., F.S.A., Hon. R.A.M., Principal 
Guildhall School of Music. 

Goldschmidt, Otto, Esq., Hon. R.A. M. and R. Swedish A.M. 

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander C., Mus.D., St. Andrews, Cantab, et Edin., 
LL.D., D.C.L., &c., Principal of the Royal Academy of Music. 

Maclean, Charles, Esq., M.A., Mus. Doc., Oxon. 

Prendergast, a. H. D., Esq., M.A. 

Prout, E., Esq., B.A., Lond., Mus. Doc., Dub. et Edin., Prof. Mus. Univ. Dub. 
Rayleigh, Rt. Hon. Lord, M.A., F.R.S. 

Stanford, Sir Charles Villiers, Mus. Doc., Cantab., Oxon. et Leeds, M.A., 
D.C.L., Prof. Mus. Univ. Camb. 


Cobbett, W. W., Esq. 

Edoar, Clifford B., Esq., B.Sc., Mus. Bac., Lond. 

Lloyd, C. Harford, Esq., M.A., Mus.D., Oxon. 

Maitland, J. A. Fuller, Esq., M.A. 

McNauoht, W. G., Esq., F.R.A.M., Mus. Doc., Cantuar. 

Shinn, F. G., Esq., Mas. Doc., Dunelm. 

Southgate, Thomas Lea, Esq. 

Squire, W. Barclay, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 

Stainer, J. F. R., Esq., M.A., B.C.L. 

Webb, F. Gilbert, Esq. 


Sir Frederick Bridge, M.V.O. | J. A. Fuller Maitland, Esq., M.A. 
J. F. R. Stainer, Esq., M.A., B.C.L. 


Clifford B. Edgar, Esq., Mus. Bac., Wedderlie, Queen's Road, Richmond, 



David James Blaikley, Esq. 

Dr. C. Bowdler. 


Arthur T. Cummings, Esq. 


J. Percy Baker, Esq., Wihon House, Lon^ey Road, Tooting Oraveney, S.W. 

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Adler, Prof. Dr. Guido (Vienna). 

Gevaert, Monsieur F. A. (Brussels). 

Riemann, Dr. Hugo, Mus. Doc., Edin., Phil.D., Gdttingen (Leipsic). 
Stradiot, Monsieur Eugene (Madras). 


Alexander, Lesley, Esq. 

*Baker, J. Percy, Esq., Mus. Bac., Dunelm., A.R.A.M. {Secrttary). 

Beaumont, Captain AJex. Spink. 

*Blaikley, David James, Esq. {Hon. Auditor). 

Bosanquet, R. H. M., Esq., M.A., F.R.A.S., F.C.S., Fellow of St. John's 
College, Oxon. {Vice-Presidtnt). 

Brogden, F. B., Esq. 

Clarke, Sir Ernest, M.A. 

♦Cooper, E. Ernest, Esq. 

Finlayson, Rnthven, Esq. 

♦Hadow, W. H., Esq., M.A., Mus. Bac., Oxon. 

♦Lacy, F. St.John, Esq., A.R.A.M. 

♦Latham, Morton, Esq., LL.D., M.A., Mus. Bac., Cantab., J.P. 

♦Sharp, H. Granville, Esq., M.A., Oxon. 

♦Shinn, Frederick G., Esq., Mus. Doc., Dunelm., A.R.C.M., F.R.C.O. 
Spottiswoode, W. Hugh, Esq. 

Stainer, Edward, Esq. 

Stainer, J, F. R,, Esq., M.A., B.C.L. (Trustee). 

♦Strangways, A. H. Fox, Esq. 

♦Welch, C„ Esq., M.A. 

♦Woods, F. Cunningham, Esq., M.A., Mus. Bac., Oxon. 


Abernethy, Frank N., Esq., Mus. 
Doc., Oxon. 

Adams, W. Grylls, Esq., M.A., 
F.R.S., Professor King’s College 

♦Aikin, W. A., Esq., M.D. 

♦Alabaster, J. H., Esq. 

Alsop, John, Esq. 

♦Arkwright, G. E. P., Esq. (Newbury). 
Attenborough, Miss Florence G. 

♦Barnett, John Francis, Esq., 

♦Barry, C. A., Esq., M.A. (Vice- 

♦Barton, Mrs. F. A. 

Belsham, Oliver D., Esq., J.P. 
Bengougb, Rev. E. S., M.A., Mus. 
Bac., Oxon. 

♦Bennett, G. J., Esq., Mus. Doc., 
Cantab. (Lincoln). 

♦Benson, Lionel S., Esq. 

Bisgood, J. J., Esq., B.A. 

Bonner, W. Harding, Esq. 

Borland, J. E., Esq., Mus. Bac., 
Oxon., F.R.C.O. 

Boundy, Miss Kate, A.R.C.M. 
♦Bowdler, C., Esq., M.A., LL.D., 
Mus. Bac., Dublin (Hon. Auditor). 
♦Bridge, Sir Frederick, M.V.O., M.A., 
Mus. Doc., Oxon., Organist, West- 
minster Abbey, Prof. Mus. Univ. 
Lond., Gresham Prof. Mus. (Vice- 
President and Trustee). 

♦Bridge, J. C., Esq., M.A., Mus. Doc., 
Oxon. (Chester). 

Brooksbank, Oliver O., Esq., Mus. 

Doc. , Dunelm., F.R.C.O. (Torquay) . 
Browne, Rev. Marmaduke E. 
Brownlow, Mrs. J. M. E. 

Bruce, George F., Esq., F.R.C.O. 
♦Buck, Percy C., Esq., M.A., Mus. 
Doc., Oxon. (Harrow). 

Burgess, Francis, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. 
Butler, Walter, Esq. 

Carrick, Ernest F. P., Esq. 

♦Cart, Rev. Henry, M.A. 

♦Carter, Miss Margaret, L.R.A.M., 

Casson, Thomas, Esq. 
♦Chamberlayne, Miss E, A. 

Chaplin, Miss Nellie. 

^Clarke, John Grey, Esq., M.A., Mus. 
Bac., Oxon., F.R.C.O. 

Clarke, Somers, Jun., Esq. 

Clements, Miss Clara H., A.T.C.L. 
♦Cobbett, W. W., Esq. 

Collard, John C., Esq. 

♦Coward, Henry, Esq., Mus. Doc., 
Oxon. (Sheffield). 

Crews, Chas. T. D., Esq. 

Croger, T. R., Esq. 

♦Culwick, James C., Esq., Mus. Doc., 
T.C.D. (Dublin). 

♦Cummings, W. H., Esq., Mus. Doc., 
Dub., F.S.A., Princip^ Guildhall 
School Mus. (Vice-President). 
Curwen, J. Spencer, Esq., F.R.A.M. 

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Dale, C. J., Esq. 

Davison, Munro, Esq., L.R.A.M. 
Daymond, Miss Emily R., Mus. Doc., 
Oxon., A.R.C.M. 

♦Dent, Edward J., Esq., M.A., Mus. 
Bac., Cantab. (Cambridge). 

Dillon, Charles E. M., Esq. 
♦Donaldson, Sir George. 

♦Douglas, Colonel H. A. (Rome). 

♦Edgar, Clifford B., Esq., Mus. Bac., 
Lond., B.Sc.(i/o«. Treasurer), 
♦Edwards, F. G., Esq., F.R.A.M. 
♦Ellingford, Herbert F., Esq., 
A.R.C.M. (Dover). 

Everington, W. A., Esq. 

♦Ferguson, Miss Phimie, A.R.C.M. 

Fisher, T. Disney, Esq. 

♦Fleming, W. P., Esq. fundee). 
Flexman, Miss H., L.R.A.M. 

Fox, Arthur M. , Esq., Mus. Bac., 
Lond. , A.R.C.O. 

♦Galpin, Rev. F. W., M.A., F.L.S. 
♦Goldschmidt, Otto, Esq. {Vice- 
President) . 

♦Goodhart, A. M., Esq., M.A., Mus. 

Bac., Cantab. (Eton). 

♦Goodman, P., Esq. (Dublin). 

♦Gray, Alan, Esq., LL.M., Mus. Doc., 
Cantab. (Cambridge). 

Gray, Mrs. Robin. 

♦Griffin, Ralph, Esq. 

Hahn, Bernard, Esq., F.R.G.S. 

Harding, H. A., Esq., Mus. Doc., 
Oxon. (Bedford). 

Harris, Richard, Esq., Mus. Bac., 
Oxon., F.R.C.O. 

Harrison, Walter, Esq., M.A., Mus. 
Bac., Oxon. 

Havergal, Captain A., R.N. (Seven- 

Haysman, Hamilton, Esq. 

♦Herbert, George, Esq. 

Hichens,The Rev. Canon F.H., M.A. 

Higgins, Miss Florence G. £., Mus. 

Bac., Lond. 

Hill, Arthur F., Esq. 

Hill, Arthur G., Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 
Hill, Miss Cecilia. 

Hill, Cyril F., Esq. 

♦Hinton, J.W., Esq., M.A. , Mus. Doc., 

♦Holland, Theodore, Esq. 

Horn, William, Esq., C.E. 

Hulton, F. Everard W., Esq., Mus. 
Bac., Oxon. 

Huntley,GeorgeF.,Esq.,Mus. Doc., 

Hurdle, H. A., Esq., A.R.A.M. 

Jervis-Read, H. V., Esq., A.R.A.M. 

♦Johnston, Miss Agnes, Mus. Bac., 
Edin. (Edinburgh). 

♦Karlyle, C. E., Esq. 

♦Kilburn, N., Esq., Mus. Bac., 

Knox, Brownlow D., Esq. 

♦Koenig, Madame Rose. 

Kuhn, Miss Adele. 

♦Langdale, Miss Mary. 

Langley, George, Esq. 

♦Lee, E. Markham, Esq., M.A., 
Mus. Doc., Cantab. 

♦Letts, Chas., Esq. 

Littleton, Alfred H., Esq. 

♦Lloyd, Chas. H., Esq., M.A., Mus. 

Doc., Oxon. (Windsor). 

♦Lowe, C. Egerton, Esq. 

♦Mackenzie, Sir Alexander C., Mus. 
Doc., St. And., Cantab, et Edin., 
LL.D., D.C.L., &c.. Principal of 
the Royal Academy of Music 

♦Maclean, Charles, Esq., M.A., Mus. 

Doc., Oxon. {Vice-President). 
♦Maitland, J. A. Fuller, Esq., M.A., 
F.S.A. {Trustee), 

Martyn, Sami. S., Esq., Mus. Bac., 

♦Matthew, James E., Esq. 

♦McMillan, John, Esq. 

♦McNaught, W. G., Esq., F.R.A.M., 
Mus. Doc., Cantuar. 

♦Miller, George Elliot, Esq. 

Morley, Charles, Esq., M.P. 
♦Mountain, Thos., Esq. 

Naylor, Edward W., Esq., M.A., 
Mus. Doc., Cantab. (Cambridge). 
♦Newmarch, Mrs. Henry. 

Nicholson, Alfred J., Esq. (St. Albans). 
Nicholson, Sydney H., Esq., M.A., 
Mus. Bac., Oxon. (Carlisle). 
♦Niecks, Fr., Esq., Mus. Doc., Dub., 
Prof. Mus. Univ. Edin. (Edin- 

♦Ohlenschlager, Miss C. 

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♦Parry, Sir C. Hubert H., Bart., 
C.V.O., Mus. Doc. ,Oxon., Cantab., 
Dub. et Leeds, Prof. Mus. Univ. 
Oxf., Director Roy. Col. Mus. 

♦Pearce, Chas. W., Esq., Mus. Doc., 

Perceval, Miss Caroline, Mus. Bac., 

Pownall, Frank, Esq. 

♦Prendergast, A. H. D., Esq., M.A. 

Prescott, Miss Oliveria, A.R.A.M. 
♦Preston, Sidney J., Esq., A.R.C.O. 

Prior, Mrs. H. Stansfeld, A.R.C.M. 
♦Prout, E., Esq., B.A., Lond., Mus. 
Doc., Dub. et Edin., Prof. Mus. 
Univ. Dub. (Vice-President). 

Randegger, Cav. Alberto. 

Rayleigh, Right Honourable Lord, 
M.A., F.R.S. (Vice-President). 
Richardson, A. Madeley, Esq., M.A., 
Mus. Doc., Oxon. 

♦Rommel, Miss A. Louise. 

♦Rose, Algernon S., Esq., F.R.G.S. 
♦Rube. C. E., Esq. 

St. Leger, Wm. Douglas, Esq. 

♦Sawyer, Frank J., Esq., Mus. Doc., 
Oxon. (Brighton). 

♦Scholes, Percy A., Esq. (Leeds). 
♦Shakespeare, William, Esq. 
♦Shaw-Hellier, Col. T. B. (Wolver- 

♦Shedlock, Jas. S., Esq., B.A. 
♦Sidebotham, J. W., Esq., Mus. Bac., 

Smith, Miss Grace M., L.R.A.M. 
Smith, W. Macdonald, Esq. 

♦Smyth, Miss Isabella Stuart, 

L. R.A.M. 

♦Southgate, Thos. Lea, Esq. 

Spooner- Lillingston, Rev. S. E. L., 

M. A. , Mus. Bac., Oxon. 

♦Squire, W. Barclay, Esq., M.A., 

F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 

Stacpoole, Mrs., A.T,C.L. (Cloyne). 
♦Stainer, Miss E. C. 

♦Stanford, Sir C. Villiers, M.A., 
Mus. Doc., Cantab., Oxon. et 
Leeds, Prof. Mus. Univ. Camb. 

Statham, H. Heathcote, Esq. 

Swan, Frank E., Esq., F.R.C.O., 
A.R.C.M. (Chelmsford). 

Swann, Stretton, Esq., Mus. Bac., 
Dunelm., F.R.C.O. 

Szlumper, Sir James, J.P., D.L. 

Taylor, Franklin, Esq. 

♦Taylor, Sedley, Esq., M.A., Trin. 

Coll., Camb. 

♦Terry, R. R., Esq. 

♦Thelwall, W. H., Esq. 

Thomas, John, Esq. 

Thwaites, Lewis, Esq. (California). 
♦Tovey, Donald Francis, Esq., B.A. 
Treherne, George G. T., Esq. 
♦Trotter, T. H. Yorke, Esq., M.A., 
Mus. Doc., Oxon. 

♦Vernon, E. E. Harcourt, Esq. 
♦Vincent, W. Karl E. , Esq. (Yokohama) 
♦Visetti, A., Esq. 

♦Waterlow, Herbert J., Esq. 

♦Watson, H., Esq., Mus. Doc., Cantab. 


♦Webb, F. Gilbert, Esq. 

Wedmore, Edmund T., Esq. 

Welch, W., Esq., M.A. 

♦Werner, Miss Hildegard, A.J.I. 

West, John E., Esq. 

♦Westerby, Herbert, Esq., Mus. Bac., 
Lond. (Middlesbrough). 

Wetton, H. Davan, Esq., Mus. Doc., 

White, J. S., Esq. 

Widdows, A., Esq. 

♦Williams, C. F. Abdy, Esq., M.A., 
Mus. Bac., Cantab, et Oxon. 
Williams, Ernest Victor, Esq. 
Williams, Miss E. M., A.R.C.O. 
♦Willmott, Miss E. A. 

♦Wooldridge, H. Ellis, Esq., M.A. 

Woolley, Miss E. M. (N. S. Wales). 
♦Wyndham, Hon. Hugh A. (South 

Yeatman, Harry O., Esq. 

Those who are also Members of the International Musical Society are 
indicated by ♦ to their names. 





The Annual General Meeting of Members was held 
ON Tuesday, November 21, 1905, at the King’s 
Room, Messrs. Broadwood’s, Conduit Street, W. 

Sir C. Hubert H. Parry, Bart., in the Chair. 

The following Report of the Council was read by the Secretary : — 

The Council have pleasure in submitting their Report and 
Accounts for the 31st Session. 

Papers have been read by Mr. William Shakespeare, 
Dr. T. H. Yorke Trotter, Mr. W. W. Starmer, Dr. E. 
Markham Lee, Miss Lucy Broadwood, Mrs. Newmarch, 
Mr. F. Gilbert Webb, Mr. Thomas Strevens, and Dr. Arthur 
Somervell. In recording their thanks to these ladies and 
gentlemen, the Council desire at the same time to acknow- 
ledge the kindness of Mr. J. Campbell Mclnnes, Mr. C. A. 
Lidgey, Miss Grainger Kerr, Mr. Seth Hughes, Mr. Richard 
Epstein, and Mr. J. T. Lockyer for their assistance with 
illustrations to certain of the Papers. The volume of 
Proceedings wherein these Papers and the Discussions 
thereon are included will be ready shortly. 

The Council have again the pleasure to report that 
the membership has been well maintained, the numbers 

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showing a slight increase on last year. At the same time, 
however, they feel that the position of the Association would 
be much strengthened, and its influence and dignity much 
enhanced, if the roll of members was materially enlarged. 
Its position as the only learned Society in Great Britain 
wholly devoted to music is unique, and the Council invite 
those interested in the Art, Science, and History of Music 
to become members of the Musical Association. 

The Council have the satisfaction of being able to report 
that the attendance at the monthly meetings during the 
last Session shows a substantial increase, probably con- 
stituting a record in the history of the Association. 
Concurrently with this, and probably consequent upon it, 
the discussions have been particularly full and animated in 
character. With a view to further developing this side of 
the meetings, the Council have resolved that they shall 
for the future be held on the third, instead of the second, 
Tuesday in the month, it having been represented to them 
that the day hitherto used was inconvenient, if not 
impossible, to many members. 

It is with deep regret that the Council have to record 
the deaths of Mr. Walter Macfarren and the Hon. A. L. 
Orde-Powlett. Mr. Macfarren, who was a Vice-President, 
had been a member of the Association for many years 
and took great interest in its welfare. Mr. Orde-Powlett 
devoted his life and his musical talents to the promotion 
of the art he loved in the North of England, by organizing 
and superintending many competitive festivals, and his 
influence on music was widespread and wisely exerted. 

The Annual Dinner was held at the Monico Restaurant 
on November 13, 1904, the President, Sir C. Hubert 
H. Parry, was in the chair, and there was a large gathering 
of members and their friends to the number of 116. The 
programme of music was contributed by Madame Rose 
Koenig, Miss Bessie Cartwright, Dr. Markham Lee, Mr. 
Philip Cathie, Mr. J. A. Clinton, and Mr. W. Y. Hurlstone, 
to all of whom the Council are much indebted for their 
kindness on the occasion. 

The President, Vice-Presidents, Hon. Officers, and five 
ordinary members of Council, — Mr. Clifford B. Edgar, 

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Mr. J. A. Fuller Maitland, Dr. Shinn, Mr. T. L. Southgate, 
and Mr. J. F. R. Stainer — retire from office. They offer 
themselves for re-election. 

Dr. Cummings moved, and Mr. Belsham seconded, the 
adoption of the Report. This was carried unanimously. 

The Hon. Treasurer presented the Balance Sheet, duly 
audited and attested, which, on the proposition of the 
Chairman, seconded by Mr. Southgate, was passed 

The election by the Council of Dr. C. Harford Lloyd 
to fill a casual vacancy on the Council was formally reported 
to the meeting and duly confirmed. 

Dr. Cummings moved : “ That the retiring officers whose 
names had been submitted to the members be re-elected.” 
This was seconded by Mr. Casson and carried. 

Mr. Southgate moved, and Miss Attenborough seconded : 
“ That Sir Alexander C. Mackenzie be elected a Vice- 
President.” This was carried unanimously. 

A cordial vote of thanks was then passed to the President, 
Council, and Officers for their services during the past year. 

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Founded 1874. 

Income and Expenditure from 



Nov. 5. To Balance in Hand 

• Subscriptions : — 

» 1899-1900 (i) ... 

" 1900-1901 (i) ... 

» 1901-1902 (10) ... 

» 1902.1903 (14) ... 

» 1903-1904(28)... 

» 1904-1905 (189) 

» 1905-1906 (4) ... 

» Dividends 

« Sale of Proceedings 

• Receipts for Dinner, Nov., 1904 (118 @ 5/-) 

» Internationale Musikgesellschaft account : — 

Subscriptions 1901-1902 (2) 

» 1902-1903 (3) 

» 1903-1904 (ii) 

» 1904-1905 (104) 

£ s.d.£ s. d. 

13 6 o 

I I 
I I 
10 10 
14 14 
29 8 
198 9 
4 4 

259 7 o 
II 17 8 
o 19 o 
29 10 o 

I 10 o 
5 10 o 
52 o o 


£374 19 8 





;^5oo OS. 6 d. 2j% Annuities @ 87J ... 




Stock of Volumes of Proceedings 




Stationery and Piates 




Nest of Drawers 




Reading Desk 




Blackboard and Easel 




Ballot Box 




£506 15 


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Incorporated 1904. 

November 5, 1904, to October 31, 1905. 

®r. £ s. d. 

By Printing and Stationery : — 

Novello & Co., Ltd. (Proceedings) 74 2 3 

• (Sundries) 2 13 o 

W. Fraser (Miscellaneous Printing) ii i o 

J. H. Broad & Co. (Circulars) 2 o o 

Lists, IIS. Qd, ; Advertisements, iis. 129 

• Expenses of Session 1904-1905 : — 

Rent of Hall 

5 5 



... 15 13 


Reporter’s Fee 

8 8 


Lecture Expenses 

... I I 


Postages and Petty Expenses : — 

(Secretary, 3 8s. 3d.; Treasurer, £1 19s.; 

Bank, 58. Sd.) 


Salary of Secretary 


Expenses of Dinner, 1904 : — 

Messrs. Monico 

... 29 0 


Artists' Expenses 

4 4 



1 15 


£ s. d. 

go 19 o 

30 7 6 

5 12 II 
42 o o 

• Treasurers of the I.M.G. 

• Balance in Hand ... 

- 34 19 o 

... 53 to o 
... 117 II 3 

£374 19 8 

In accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1900, we certify that 
all our requirements as Auditors have been complied with. 

We beg to report that we have Audited the above Accounts, and in our opinion 
such Accounts are properly drawn up, so as to exhibit a true and correct view of 
the state of the Association's affairs, as shown by the Books of the Association. 




London, November 7, 1905. 

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Papers or short communications for the Monthly Meetings 
are received from or through Members ; these and suggestions 
as to suitable subjects and capable writers will be gladly 
considered by the Council. If desired, such papers can be 
read on behalf of the authors. 

Members are desired to make the Association and its objects 
as widely known as possible. The Secretary will forward 
Prospectuses and Nomination Forms on application. 

Members preferring to do so can pay their subscriptions 
through their Bankers. A form for this purpose may be 
obtained of the Hon. Treasurer. ^ 

Any change of address should be promptly notified to the 
Secretary, as occasional complaints of the non- receipt of books 
and notices are usually traceable to either old or insufficient 


At a Special General Meeting held on February 13, 1900, 
the following Resolution was passed : “ That the Council be 
and is hereby authorised to add to the title of the Musical 
Association on its publications and prospectuses till further 
notice the words ‘ In connection with the International 
Musical Society.’ ” 

The English Committee of the latter Society (International 
Musical Society) consists of : Sir Alexander Mackenzie 
(President), Mr. Otto Goldschmidt (Vice - President), 
Sir Hubert Parry, Bart., Sir Frederick Bridge, Sir Charles 
Stanford, Dr. James Culwick, Dr. W. H. Cummings, Mr. E. 
J. Dent, Mr. Clifford B. Edgar, Mr. W. H. Hadow, Dr. Charles 
Maclean, Mr. J. A. Fuller Maitland, Dr. W. G. McNaught, 
Professor Niecks, Professor Prout, Mr. W. Barclay Squire. 
The Society publishes a monthly Journal and quarterly 
Magazine, employing four languages, with the object of pro- 
moting interchange between different countries of information 
and opinions concerning the history, art, and science of music. 

Papers read before The Musical Association will, in addition 
to ordinary publication in The Musical Association’s own 
Proceedings volume, be published also in the pages of the 
International Musical Society, if accepted for that purpose. 

Owing to the long-standing position of the Musical 
Association, members thereof are admitted as members of 
the International Musical Society on very special terms, 
which can be ascertained from the Secretary of the Musical 

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November ri, 1905. 

W. H. CUMMINGS, Esq., Mus.D., F.S.A., 
V ice-Prbsident, 

In the Chair. 



By Thomas Casson. 

With regard to this I premise that if you wish to boast 
of your organ that it weighs so many tons, has so many 
score of stops and so many thousand pipes, has so many 
miles of wire or tubing, requires so many score of horse- 
power to blow it, has so many billions of combinations — 
arithmetically, not artistically — possible, “ Like the nails in 
the horse’s shoes, Sammy,” I have nothing on which I can 
inform you. 

If, however, you wish to follow the Art of Organ-building, 
with which megalomania has nothing more to do than has a 
New York sky-scraper with the Taj Mahal, you must follow 
artistic rules, amongst which are ; 

1. No effort must be wasted. 

2. Ars est celare artem. 

Again, if you are of the class of organists who require to 
have everything done for them, instead of “mixing their 
colours with brains,” I have nothing to show you: but 


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2 Development of the Resources of the Organ. 

surely an organist is something more than a peripatetic 
pianola and an organ something more than a penny-in-the- 
slot machine. 

My life-work has been to render the English organ other 
than the brutal, clumsy and inane machine that it is : to 
make it musical, flexible, amenable : to eliminate mechanical 
registering and offer facilities for that which is eclectic and 
intellectual, simple and facile, and to do what in me lies to 
exorcise the base, immodest and sordid spirit of megalomania 
by which, in default of artistic development, the magnificent 
and beautiful Art of Organ-building is degraded : to use all 
legitimate economy, which does not consist in cheeseparing, 
but the reverse : vastly to simplify mechanism. In all these 
things I have succeeded ; but, from whatever cause, I have 
never — after twenty-five years’ work — gained the ear of the 

{ )ublic, nor any general notice by the Press ; nor so far, with 
ew exceptions, have I succeeded in arousing the slightest 
interest in these objects amongst those to whom one looks for 
light and guidance. 

I especially wish to draw attention to the fact that the 
great invention of the superb English genius, Charles 
Spackman Barker, has revolutionised the organ as effectively 
as steam-power has revolutionised locomotion. It is not 
merely to key-manipulation and stop-moving that the 
revolution extends, but also to many minor details, rendering 
possible many desirable things formerly attainable only in 
defective, complex and inaccessible form. For more than 
half a century the history of organ mechanism is that of the 
Pneumatic Lever. 

Notwithstanding this, however, and in spite of innumerable 
and often beautiful and ingenious developments of details of 
the pneumatic lever, we continue to build organs that in their 
tonal and accessorial schemes are more worthy of coaching 
than of steam-locomotive days. 

I should have liked to dwell upon the vast resources 
opened up by modern discoveries in the voicing of pipes and 
on the countless varieties of tone obtainable by their 
combination : but apart from this, if we have an organ of 
given size and a certain number of pipes it is possible to 
develop its existing resources in only one way; that is to 
make the pipes serve in varied capacities. As there are those 
who deny this obvious truism and tell you that such treatment 
is “ illegitimate,” “ inartistic,” or what not, we will examine 
the accuracy and sincerity of their statement. The real crux 
is that we must frame rules for ordination of all such devices, 
so that we shall not on the one hand with Meister-Singer 
pedantry reject useful and admissible devices, nor on the 
other run riot with an excess that, like all excess, defeats its 
own ends. Still less may we use the devices for purposes of 

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Development of the Resources of the Organ. 3 

deception. It is regrettable that these and other important 
matters have not long ago been taken up and settled. 

Apart from mere megalomaniac vulgarity, then, organ 
development thus resolves itself into systematising and 
making accessible in various capacities the existing pipes, 
stops, stop-families and claviers. With the pipes the first 
step was segregation of whole rows or sets by silencing them ; 
that is by applying stops ; for, as doubtless you are aware, the 
organ was originally always “ full ” without mitigation or 
variety. Here, then, we meet with pipes serving, by orchestral 
analogy, in a second capacity, that of Solo as distinct from 
Ripieno. This most important device led to the invention of 
“ stops,” as they were soon termed, of greatly varied make 
and tone. 

The first attempt to vary the work of pipes in groups was 
successfully effected by assigning them to different claviers. 
At first, pitch as much as quality seems to have been considered, 
and the tradition is still extant in such matters as an organ of 
32 ft. Pedal, 16 ft. Great, 8 ft. Swell or BrQstwerk and 4 ft. 
Choir. Here we have families of stops, at first not greatly 
differing in form, serving in differing capacities as regards 
scale and pitch. This grouping on varied claviers soon 
developed itself as the most perfect of combination movements ; 
though of course such combinations were restricted to the 
number of claviers. 

These matters of stops and claviers are now so common- 
place that few realise their importance as developments or 
the progress made from the early, crude mechanisms by which 
they were effected. 


It was not long, we may be sure, before it was perceived 
that many pipes, particularly the larger and more costly, 
could be made to serve on two claviers. The first application 
of this method was by “ borrowing.” It is interesting to me 
to learn that the earliest application known was in the form 
which, without knowing of this instance, I had persistently 
advocated for a quarter of a century, viz., the borrowing of 
the upper range of a pedal stop of 16 ft. from the lower range 
of the corresponding manual stop of 8 ft. Our esteemed 
member Mr. Abdy Williams quotes this from Praetorius as 
effected at Halle about a.d. 1500, and remarks that it was 
then a common practice. It is interesting also as showing 
that the primary duty of the pedal organ was even then 
thoroughly understood and carried out generally ; that 
duty being to provide proper basses for the manual stops, 
as we are taught by Best, Hopkins, and the German 
builders and authorities to whom we owe the pedal-board and 
pedal organ. 

B 2 

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Development of the Resources of the Organ. 

Here, as one who has been long before the public, I wish to 
enter an earnest protest. I have for years advocated the 
essential principle of a proper pedal organ properly controlled, 
as against the ignorant and brutal treatment to which that 
department has ever been subjected in this country. My 
system is absolutely and entirely a system of control ; but it 
is absurd to employ it for a pedal organ that in an artistic 
sense cannot be said to exist. There must be at any cost, in 
a complete instrument, a proper pedal organ, including proper 
i6 ft. basses in the swell box. I claim, indeed, that it is 
legitimately possible to use borrowing as a means to that end ; 
and hence I advocate careful and legitimate borrowing for 
the sake of economy in room and money ; but my system is a 
thing absolutely independent of this detail of borrowing. 

Here again I must point out that the Pedal Organ itself is 
a conspicuous illustration of the fact that development of 
resources must take the form of making pipes do duty in 
several capacities ; for from a few sets of pipes the pedal organ 
has to evolve proper basses for all the stops and stop 
combinations of several manuals. How is it possible to 
contend that pipes must do duty in only one capacity ? 

If those who condemn borrowing in this or any other r61e 
had ever themselves produced a decent pedal organ without 
borrowing, something might be said for their complete but 
lavish ideas ; but in no case have they done so. My protest 
is against my system of organ-building being regarded as in 
any way dependent on borrowing. Borrowed or not borrowed, 
there must be a proper Pedal Organ, and no condemnation of 
a non-essential detail absolves us from observance of this vital 
and elementary principle. Moreover, there are those who 
have been holding me up to scorn for advocating borrowing, 
who now use it freely with a zeal that is certainly not according 
to knowledge. How then do they conceal their volte-face ? 
Simply by using borrowing and calling it by another name ! 
One can only infer as to what use they have been accustomed 
to apply borrowing when its use under its proper name is 
tabooed. Verily “ in the house of the hanged one must not 
speak of rope.” 

Let us examine two other applications of borrowing. 
At Salisbury, Harris borrowed all the Great Organ, with the 
exception of one stop, to form the Choir Organ. As 
described, it was hardly economical for the smaller pipes ; for 
the conveyances alleged to have been used from sound-board 
to sound-board must have cost more in money and room 
than actual separate pipes, besides requiring hundreds of 
inaccessible non-return valves. I very much doubt, however, 
whether the major portion of this borrowing was by 
conveyances; particularly because the illustration shows a 
Choir Organ in front. It was far more probably effected 

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Development of the Resources of the Organ. 5 

by one soundboard for the lower notes of both Great and 
Choir, with alternate grooves and alternate sliders, a device 
by no means new. Possibly the front case contained small 
pipes which it would not pay to borrow. 

In considering this use of borrowing we must remember 
that in Harris’s day there were no combination movements 
or couplers, so that under the circumstances of the times it 
was no vain boast that “ On this organ may be more varietys 
express’d than by al ye organs in England.” 

Nevertheless we find that this method was not approved, 
possibly because of trouble with the inaccessible mechanism, 
and that Smith subsequently built an organ of which it was 
stipulated that no pipes should do double duty. 

The absence from German organs of fifty years ago of any 
adequate controlling accessories, and their poverty-stricken 
lack of couplers, probably formed a similar reason for 
Schulze’s borrowing the Solo Organ from the Swell at 

I do not, as shown by the rules I have endeavoured to frame, 
regard these methods as legitimate ; but they were justifiable, 
as equivalent to a sort of adjustable combination action, in 
Harris’s day. 

I now proceed to illustrate borrowing as carried to 
ridiculous excess : 

A Distinct Abuse. 

A certain builder provides some four-manual stops and by 
borrowing each on two manuals and pedals, in sub-sub-octave, 
sub-octave, unison, octave, super-octave and super-super- 
octave pitch, evolves an organ of two manuals and pedals of 
some 40 “ stops ” at the Console : but you will at once see that 
while for a single note (say middle C) a Double, Unison, 
Principal, Fifteenth and Twenty-second may be evolved 
from an Open Diapason, with no worse effect than that which 
results from disproportionate scaling, it cannot be done if 
another note an octave lower (say tenor C) be simultaneously 
struck ; for tenor C would sound only its own note in 16 ft. 
pitch, because its Unison, Principal, Fifteenth and Twenty- 
second are already sounding. Thus we have in exaggerated 
form the most conspicuous defects of the octave and sub- 
octave coupler. Obviously this form of borrowing— I beg 
pardon, “continuation” — is inadmissible for the manuals; 
though in moderation it is useful on the pedals, where 
employment of anything more than single notes is very 
exceptional. Thus we find Hopkins recommending 
“ borrowing ” — of course under its true, straightforward, 
technical name — for obtaining the octave stops of the pedal 

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6 Development of the Resources of the Organ. 

from an existing independent pedal stop, as recently done 
for the organ of the Royal College of Organists. This 
contrivance, first used, I think, by Robson, has been in constant 
use for half-a-century. One thus perceives much hypocrisy 
in the horror expressed of borrowing per se. On the showing of 
organ-builders, good, bad and indifferent, the question 
obviously is not whether borrowing is admissible, but of the 
extent to which it is so. In other words, borrowing requires 
ordination and limitation, not suppression; Nothing more: 
nothing less. 

I have given three instances of borrowing: The first, 

legitimate, economical and useful. The second, illegitimate 
to a great extent, but fairly admissible under the circumstances 
of the times. The third, borrowing carried to extreme and 
ridiculous abuse ; as regards which, however, I quote the 
ordinary truism, viz. : that abuse forms no argument 
against use. 

I suggest the following laws for admission and restrictions 
of borrowing : — 

1. The mechanism must be simple and accessible, and must 

not give “ second wind.” 

2. The borrowing must be economical. That is, it must 

cost less in room or money, or both, than actual 
independent pipes. 

3. It must be legitimate. That is, there must be no serious 

deficiency perceptible when the original and the 
borrowed stops are used together. 

4. The device must be fully set forth, in design and contract, 

under its true technical name. 

Restricting ourselves to these rules, with a reasonable and 
wholesome corrective in the adage de minimis non curat 
lex, we shall find borrowing of immense value in relation to 
the Pedal Organ, a department most unworthily treated in 
England. On the other hand we shall find that, with trifling 
exceptions, it is practically prohibited for the manuals. 

Mechanically the usual modern method of borrowing is to 
place on a separate sound-board, termed a “ pneumatic block,” 
the pipes which are to be borrowed. The pneumatic block 
has pneumatic relays suitable for tubular action. All that is 
then necessary is to bring to each relay a tube, guarded by a 
non-return valve, from each source common to the borrowed 
pipe. This is simple. The pallets of the " block ” can 
usually be made perfectly accessible ; each pipe has but one 

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Development of the Resources of the Organ. 7 

pallet and wind supply, so that “ second wind ” is impossible. 
As a matter of fact, the borrowed stops are thus merely 
pneumatically coupled, stop by stop ; and this would be a 
more resourceful method for all of them than coupling them, 
as usual, by a whole sound-boardful at a time, if the game 
were worth the candle. It is not worth it, however ; for the 
mass of multiplex and (worst of faults) inaccessible mechanism 
involved would be contrary to Rule i, and, often, to Rule 2. 
At the same time one sees the absurdity of condemning modern 
borrowing when used to a moderate extent, while commending 
the practically identical mechanism of coupling. It would 
seem that to couple pneumatically a single stop is iniquitous, 
while to couple a dozen is praiseworthy : to couple one stop 
and call it “ borrowing " is anathema : to do the same thing 
and call it “coupling” is blessed! To such reductio ad 
absurdum are we brought if we repudiate per se the borrowing 
rendered possible by Barker’s invention. Rule i, then, is 
easily kept. As to Rule 2, however, we shall find that, although 
the pneumatic block and tubes save much in the lower ranges, 
we soon arrive at a point where it pays better to employ 
separate pipes than to borrow. I do not think that it pays to 
put borrowing mechanism expressly for stops of 4 ft. or less. 
A borrowed 8 ft. octave will save about half the cost, while a 
borrowed 16 ft. octave will save from two-thirds to three- 
fourths. Once more, therefore, it is obvious that these 
considerations are applicable to hardly any pipes but those of 
the pedal. As regards room it is always well to save it. 

It is frequently better to borrow large pipes which require 
much standing and speaking room than to have independent 
pipes destitute of such room. Subject to the rules mentioned 
and quite apart from financial advantage, it is better to 
borrow than to crowd. 

Of Rule 4, I can only say that no self-respecting organ- 
builder will fail of his own accord to comply with it. Others 
may prefer to use the euphemisms “ transmission,” 
“ derivation,” “ continuation,” or what not, or even not to 
mention the fact of “ borrowing ” at all. 

The crucial rule is No. 3, which practically excludes all 
borrowing from manual to manual on itself or from another. 

In the Pedal there are three methods of borrowing, and I 
dwell upon them because much interest appears to be at last 
excited upon this subject. 

I. Borrowing the upper range of an existing independent 
pedal stop to form the lower range of a complementary octave 
stop. This is, as already stated, very widely used, and may 
very well be extended so as to provide, from one set of pipes, 
pedal stops in 32 ft., 16 ft., and 8 ft. or in 16 ft. 8 ft. and 4 ft. 
The method is not absolutely correct, for there is a deficiency 
when the playing is in octaves, as already demonstrated, but 

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Development of the Resources of the Organ, 

pedal-playing in octaves is so exceptional, and, when resorted 
to, the . small defect is usually so well covered by coupled 
manuals, that refusal to adopt this economy is little more 
than grotesque pedantry. There is no serious appreciable 
loss incurred by recourse to it even in the case of the most 
important pedal stops of the most important organs. 

2. The second principle is the borrowing of the upper range 
of a pedal stop from the lower range of a correlative manual 
stop, e.g., the upper i8 notes of a pedal Open Diapason from 
the bass of a manual “ Open.” This is strictly legitimate ; 
for it is the primary duty of the pedal organ to provide 
accurate and appropriate basses for corresponding manual 
stops. The loss in playing in octaves is rather greater, 
because not so well covered by manual coupling. It would 
thus be well not to employ it for the heaviest pedal stops 
of large organs ; but it answers very well for the chief pedal 
stops of organs not exceeding some twenty-four manual stops 
and — owing to the saving of room which it effects — it is of 
exceptional value for the provision of that elementary and 
necessary feature of an artistic organ, a sufficiently 
numerous, powerful and varied group of practically 
independent pedal stops inside the Swell box. 

3. We now come to the third method of borrowing for the 

pedal, viz., borrowing in identical pitch. It has frequently 
been used by builders of the highest class, and it is admissible 
to some extent, though it can in no way supersede the 
necessity for stops of more independent character whether in 
the Swell or out of it. For very light 16 ft. pedal stops, and 
for those only, it is admissible, for the following reason: The 

manual doubles are but seldom used except in full 
combinations ; for such combinations the pedal bass is 
reinforced by heavy stops. Thus the absence of the lighter 
basses is not perceived, notwithstanding that, theoretically. 
Rule 3 is broken when both stops are drawn and coupled. 
De minimis non curat lex. There is no serious 
appreciable loss. 

On the other hand it is quite the usual thing, as pointed 
out by Mr. Best, to find in England large organs totally 
destitute of soft pedal stops. The organist has to play upon 
preposterously heavy basses, the only ones available, though 
the gentle but large and costly pipes that would form suitable 
musical basses are standing silent and inaccessible on the 
manual sound-boards. In the face of such pedantic imbecility 
the objections to borrowing are, I say, simply grotesque. 

What, then, must be emphasised is that those who scornfully 
reject borrowing are not thereby released from the obligation 
to provide pedal basses adequate not only in power — we 
usually have that to the extent of gross brutality — but also in 
number, variety and accessibility. 

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Development of the Resources of the Organ. g 

Opponents of borrowing and of numerous pedal stops often 
rightly object to carrying down the bass of a Manual Dulciana 
or Viol, in an organ of pretension, on a stopped bass from 
tenor C to CC. On what possible pretext come they to be 
satisfied for the semitone below that sacrosanct note, and all 
beyond it, with one stopped bass for the whole of the quieter 
stops of a large organ ? Often there is not even that. 


The development succeeding borrowing was the method of 
intercoupling the claviers. I need not enlarge upon this 
familiar device further than to point out that it is simply an 
extension of the principle of making stops speak in varied 
capacity. If, e.g., the Swell be coupled to the Great the stops 
of the Swell at once become stops of the Great and do duty 
on that manual. 

Octave Coupling. 

A further development is the coupling of a manual to itself 
in octave or sub-octave pitch, the former a device long known 
in Italy under the picturesque title of “ Terzo Mano,” or 
“ Third hand.” By means of this the stops of 8 ft. act as of 
4 ft. or i6 ft. ; that is, the pipes again act in varied capacity, 
though only in addition to their original role, not 

These couplers are almost invariably introduced recklessly 
and inartistically ; by none more so than by some of those who 
declaim against borrowing and duplication. In no organ of 
pretension should the octave-coupler be introduced without 
the necessary small and inexpensive extra octave of pipes, or 
without adequate i6 ft. stops to come to the rescue of the 8 ft. ; 
thus maintaining an approximate balance and obviating the 
common result of making the 4 ft. ranks more numerous than 
the 8 ft. The sub-octave coupler I do not myself willingly 
insert except for quasi-orchestral effects of solo stops. It 
muddles intolerably the tonal balance when used chorally. 

One meets in organs, especially under the vulgar tonal 
designs which frequently characterise “ electric ” organs, 
with such abominations as a collection of 8 ft. stops only, 
coupled in octave and sub-octave pitch, the result being 
analogous to Mrs. Bouncer’s bolster, which, you may 
remember, contained “ a handful and a half of feathers at 
each end and nothing whatever in the middle.” 

Generally, too, the extra octave is omitted, so that there 
are thus only some two and a half octaves of “ Full Organ ” ! 

A further development of octave and sub-octave actions is 
the “ Unison Silent ” or “ Octaves alone ” stop invented by 

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lo Development of the Resources of the Organ. 

me, now coming into very general use. The effect is to make 
the i6 ft. or 4 ft. capacities of the stops independent of the 
8 ft. range, enormously increasing the variety of the capacities 
in which the stops can serve ; that is in still further 
“ Development of the Resources of the Organ.” This principle 
is developed still further in ” Octave duplication,” of which 
more anon. 

With a view to ordination of octave and sub-octave coupling 
I suggest the following rules. As to the former : 

1. Since ” super-octave ” is the term defining the ratio of 

the second octave, i.e., 2 ft. to 8 ft., the definition 
should be to that of “ Octave coupler.” 

2. The Octave coupler is inadmissible in organs of 

pretension unless (a) The necessary extra octave of 
pipes is provided to complete the range ; (b) The 
scheme provides ample 16 ft. tone to reinforce the 8 ft., 
thus to maintain reasonable tonal balance. 

3. As regards the latter, the sub-octave coupler is 

inadmissible in full playing. 

Combination Action. 

Time does not permit of my showing the practical results 
of these actions. As a rule they do not add to the actual 
resources, but since the intention is that they shall make 
accessible the existing resources, their practical effect is to 
render efficient service in development. I can deal to-night 
only with the ordinary English action. 

This dates from Bishop’s Composition Pedals, which 
displayed upon the stops certain arbitrary combinations. 
This principle was followed in the “ pistons ” of 1852 by 
Willis who, calling the pneumatic lever to his aid, moved the 
“ Composition ” action by thumb-pistons. There is no 
difference in principle between composition pedals, pistons or 
key-touches thus applied. 

Employed as auxiliaries for registering combinations as 
intended, I think, by both Bishop and Willis, these movements 
are valuable; but, unfortunately, they have with some 
organists come to be regarded as an end and not as a means. 
These gentlemen expect everything to be done for them, and 
instead of registering by brain-work the thousands of possible 
combinations, they restrict themselves to the few arbitrary 
combinations provided by the builder, reducing the grand 
tone-palette of the organ to a crude chromo-lithography. 
The registering is as mechanical as the clavier work of a 

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Development of the Resources of the Organ. ii 

“ Adjustable ’’ movements get over this drawback, but only 
to create others, a matter upon which time fails me to enter. 
I wish however to show you two combinational contrivances 
which I think vanquish these difficulties. They will at least 
interest you. 

Obviously, if without any strain on the memory or bewilder- 
ing mass of exterior accessories we can make available the 
unlimited combinations of eclectic and intellectual character, 
as distinct from the poor half-dozen of mechanical combinations, 
the virtual effect is to increase vastly the practical resources of 
the whole organ. 

Study of the difficulties presented in eclectic as distinct from 
mechanical registering at once reveals the fact, realised by me 
twenty-five years ago, that the pedal organ and its couplers 
are the chief offenders. At every change of manual or manual 
power the whole supply of time and energy available is absorbed 
in the mechanical task of fitting a proper bass, so that the 
performer has then, for the manuals, either to accept the 
mechanical combinations of the ordinary organ-builder, or else, 
if he wishes to register the manuals eclectically, he must 
abandon the hope of obtaining a decent bass. Every organist 
is acquainted with this difficulty. Thus perfect control 
of the pedal stops and couplers is the first essential 
condition for securing eclectic, as distinct from mechanical, 

The crude contrivance of attaching the pedal stops to the 
composition work of the Great Organ is worse than useless. 
It often necessitates smashing up the combinations of the 
Great Organ to get a bass for Swell or Choir, and it prevents 
preparative use of the Great composition work because that use 
smashes up the basses extant for Swell or Choir. 

Nor is the method of providing certain mechanical bass 
combinations to suit certain mechanical manual combinations 
of any use in eclectic registering. To attempt even this 
poor purpose I once saw an organ specification with forty-six 
key touches to govern six pedal stops and four pedal 
couplers ! 

This duty of providing a proper bass under all circumstances 
is fulfilled by my “ Pedal Help,” a stud or tablet, of which 
one is furnished for each manual. On touching one, the pedal 
stops and couplers instantly move into the correct bass for 
whatever combination of stops and couplers is extant on the 
respective manual. Not only so; but the Pedal Help having 
been touched, the pedal stops and couplers will, if desired, 
follow automatically all changes in the office, combinations and 
couplings of that manual. Without laying claim to the 
magical powers attributed to me by “ Musical News,” 1 may 
say that the working of this device does look rather weird ; 
as if an invisible attendant, not necessarily an elderly 

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12 Development of the Resources of the Organ. 

gentleman, were at one’s elbow to anticipate and execute 
one’s wishes. 

Time fails for describing the methods of dealing with the 
pedal in its secondary and tertiary roles, viz., those of 
contrasting obbligato bass and strict solo respectively, but they 
are well provided for. 

The difficulty with pedal stops and couplers being 
absolutely vanquished, we must consider the eclectic 
registering of the manuals. 

One knows the difficulty of this eclectic as distinct from 
mechanical registering and how, do what one will, one has 
sometimes to pull up, even at the cost of a ghastly lapse in 
tempo, to adjust a stop or combination ; but has anyone here set 
himself, as I have done, the task of investigating the causes of 
this difficulty ? 

The Pedal is the chief offender, as I have said ; but what 
remains ? 

Well, the greater the number of manuals the less the 
difficulty, because more preparations are possible. Why, then, 
do we not impart the same preparational power to few 
manuals ? Each manual has to do duty in two or more 
capacities, and the fewer the manuals the greater need for this 
versatility. In a two-manual organ the “ Great ” has to 
serve as Great, Choir and Solo, and the Swell as Swelliand 
Echo. In a three-manual modern organ the Choir has 
generally to serve for Choir and Solo. These things are 
elementary. Every organist has to face the difficulty as soon 
as he sits down to his organ. 

Now the trouble is this, that in spite of the versatility 
necessary for each clavier, the combination movements 
provided are for the claviers in one capacity only, e.g,, for a 
two-manual organ the combination actions suit the Great and 
Swell in their ensemble or Choral rbles only. Thus the demand 
that they shall act as Choir, Solo and Echo is ignored. The 
draw-stops are muddled together in one place ; the couplers, 
irrespective of the direction in which they are to act, are 
muddled together in another. 

The difficulty is vanquished by a very simple combination 
action which 1 term “ Duplication,” by which the stops and 
couplers are sorted out and allotted to groups suitable for each 
role of the respective manual. 

Referring to the specifications, you will observe in the 
first column that of an ordinary two-manual organ. In 
the second, third and fourth columns you will find the stops 
and couplers allotted to five separate groups, or “ organs ” as 
I term them for mnemonic assistance. The Great and Swell 
stand in ordinary form and are governed, as they very well can 
be in their choral or ensemble roles, by Composition pedals. 
Stops and couplers appropriate to more than one division are 

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Development of the Resources of the Organ. 13 

allotted to others as well, that is, they are “ Duplicated.” 
Stops inappropriate to any division are omitted from it, a.s,e.g., 
the Clarionet from the Great. 


Ordimaky Grovpinc 1 ! Grouping por Prrparative Registering by Unisonal 





I Bonrdon 


Bourdon ... 


2 Open Diapasoa 


open Diapason 


^ Diilciana 





... 8 

4 CUrabella 




Clarabella ... 8 



5 Principal 





Flute ... 

6 Plate 






7 Twelfth 


Twelfth ... . 

8 Fifteenth 




Q Mixture ... 111 . 

Mixture ... 


xo Trumpet 






II Clarionet 




I. Swell to Great. 

I. Upper Manual. 

I. Upper Manual. 

I. Upper Manual. 

Three Comp. Pedals, 
acting also on Pedal 

Three Comp. Pedals. 

Manual Help 



Help to 

Manual Help 



attach Great, de- 


Choir, de- 

attach Solo, 


taching Choir and 

taching Great and 

taching Great 



and Choir 




12 Bourdon 



... i6 

13 Open Diapason 

14 Salicional 



Open Diapasoa 


... 8 



X 5 Rohrflote 



... 8 



. 8 

16 Voix Cdlestes 


Voix Celestes 

. 8 

17 Principal 


Principal ... 


... 4 

Flute ... 

18 Flute 



... 4 

• 4 

19 Fifteenth 



... 2 

20 Cornopean ... 


Cornopean ... 

... 8 

Oboe ... 

21 Oboe 




... 8 


. 8 

23 Vox Humana 


Vox Humana 


II. Octave Coupler. 

II. Octave Coupler. 

II. Octave Coupler 



Three Comp. Pedals. 

Three Comp. Pedals. 

Manual Help, to attach Swell, 

Manual Help, to attach Echo, 

1 detaching Echo. 

detaching Swell. 

We now preparatively register our organ of two manuals 
as if it had five. Any department of a manual is attached to 
it, to the exclusion of the others, by touching a stud or tablet 
called a “ Manual Help.” Departments out of action can in 
leisurely fashion be re-registered during playing, just as 
though they belonged to separate manuals. 

I need hardly emphasise the enormous aid thus given in 
eclectic registering. Once more it is on the only possible 
line of Development ; the pipes, as represented by the stops, 
doing duty in several capacities. 

But this principle of Duplication admits of much further 
development. I have shown how the necessary guiding 
principle of development is followed in the use of the 

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14 Development of the Resources of the Organ, 

octave-coupler, a further development being to use the octave 
alone by means of my stop which silences the unison. 
There are several drawbacks to this method of applying the 
idea : — 

1. The stops drawn are indicated in wrong pitch. 

2. It is impossible to have a combination action suitable 

for both unison and octave use separately. 

3. Many stops are unsuitable for this treatment and have 

to be shut oflF by hand to employ it. 






BY OcTAVB Duplication 
OF Solo. 


Solo (in Swell except 
Top Octave. 


Violes d'Orcbestre 



Contra Viola, ten. C ) Bam | 







Waldflote, t^or Cj” 




Voix Celestes, Ramut r ... 





Harmonic Flute 



Harmonic Flute 




Como di Bassetto 



Corno di Bassetto, tenor C 







Harmonic Trumpet 




Upper Manual. 


Upper Manual 


Sub Octave Coupler. 


Sub Octave alone 

("Unison silent"). 


Octave Coupler. 


Octaves alone ('* Unison 






Tremulant (by pedal). 

Collective Full Organ Fed. 

Manual Help (to attach 

Manual Help (to attach 

Choir, detacbiiiR Solo). 

Solo, detaching Choir). 



Great Organ, 


Positive or 

WITH Extra Octave. 

Great Choir Organ. 


Double Dulciana 

x 6 






Bourdon (Bass from No. 7) 







Open Diapason, No. x ... 






Open Diapason, No. 2 ... 



















Upper Manual. 




Upper Manual 


Lower Manual. 


Lower Manual 


Octave Coupler. 

Three Composition Pedals. 

Collective Full Organ 

Manual Help, to attach 

Manual Help, to attach 

Great, detaching Posi- 

Positive, detaching 



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Development of the Resources of the Organ. 






WITH Extra Octave. 

BY Octave Duplication. 


Double Keraulophon, ten. C 

Bass from No. xs 




Keraulophon ... 


X 5 








Geigen Principal 











Harmonic Flute 




Harmonic Piccolo 


X 9 

E>ouble Hautboy 











Octave Coupler. 

Three Composition Pedals. 

Collective Full Organ 


Manual Help (to attach 

Manual Help (to attach 

Swell, detaching Echo) 

Echo, detaching Swell) 


Pedal Organ. 

Source of Pedal Basses. 



X 2 

12 Quint Pipes, i8 from No. 7, in 32' pitch. 


Open Diapason 



12 Pipes, 16' 18 ,, No. g, ,, 



7 b. 

Swell Violone ... ... 


X 2 

X 2 

,, 16' 18 „ No. x6, „ 

(in Swell) 





From No. 7 . in identical pitch. 


Echo Sub-bass 


From No. 15, in Swell, in identical pitch. 





Open Wood, independent. 



Upper Manual. 
Middle Manual. 


Lower Manual. 
Three Pedal Helps. 

Total Pipes of Pedal =06 

The difficulty is completely solved by duplicating the 
suitable stops in the octave; that is, that (as, e.g., on the three 
manual specification given to you) the Great proper has an 
octave-coupler complete. The duplicated department, the 
Positive or Great Choir, deals with suitable stops, and those 
only, in octave pitch, i.e., in relation to 4 ft. normal without 
the original or 8 ft. normal action. In the jambs are the stops 
of the Great, Swell, Choir and Pedal, the two former governed 
by composition Pedals. The Pedal organ is governed by 
three Helps. So far the organ is not much better than the 
ordinary one in the first column. Anyone can sit down and 
play it at once in the ordinary way : but above the manuals 
are three “ organs” or stop-groups duplicated in the octave. 
The combinational value of these will at once be perceived. 
One registers as if with six manuals. 

You have been shown the enormous artistic value of the 
contrivances dealt with as used, but not abused. Borrowing 
has the imprimatur of Cavaill6-Coll, Hilborne Roosvelt, 

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i6 Development of the Resources of the Organ. 

Waicker, Schulze and others, that I rouse no susceptibilities 
by mentioning great British builders. 

On the artistic value of Duplication I cannot, as its 
inventor, enlarge ; but I think you will at least appreciate the 
effort as having solely an artistic intention. Yet of these 
two contrivances the author of a large and costly new work 
not only says that they are “ inartistic," but that they are 
used from sordid trade motives, solely to make a show of 
stops that do not exist. You can judge for yourselves 
whether this vulgar imputation of motives is or is not 
definable in parliamentary language and whether it is, 
particularly in relation to the obvious deficiencies of some 
huge, recently built organs, simply grotesque. The matter is 
hardly worth mentioning were it not a very common attitude 
of some who are deemed authorities, resembling that of the 
old-fogey organists who refused to use pedals on the ground 
that they “ had not learned to dance.” 

In answer to quiet and reasoned remonstrance this author 
writes only “ I pronounce it inartistic.” With him and others 
of his kind Stat pro ratione voluntas, perhaps the most comically 
impossible attitude that can be assumed in any matter of Art 
or Science. 

To sum up the advantages gained by using fully, but within 
proper limits, the only method of development possible, viz., 
that of making pipes work in varied capacities, the following 
results are secured : — 

1. A perfectly serviceable pedal organ is obtained, instantly 

available, with its couplers for every combination of 
manual stops and couplers. 

2. The resources of the manuals are doubled in combina- 

tional value while the manipulation is reduced by fully 

3. Important above all other advantages, the manipulation 

is leisurely, eclectic and intellectual instead of being 
hurried, arbitrary and mechanical. 

I invite you to compare my organ of twenty manual stops 
and four actual pedal stops with such monsters as that at 
St. Louis, six and a-half times as big, and to judge of the relative 
artistic value of each. It is a question between simplicity, true 
economy and eclectic registering on the one hand as opposed 
to prodigality, jejune redundance and mechanical registering 
on the other. 

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Development of the Resources of the Organ, 



The Chairman. — I am very much obliged to Mr. Casson 
for his Paper, which I think is admirably condensed. I fear 
he has put so much into it that there are not many of us who 
can quite understand it in all its technical detail. But I have 
taken a great interest in the organ all my life, and I have also 
taken a considerable interest in Mr. Casson ’s work, and I am 
bound to say I think it is quite possible that by it we can get 
a more artistic instrument than was common, say, fifty years 
ago. I can recollect when pedals to organs were by no 
means universal in England. I can very well remember the 
organ at the Temple Church when it had no piedals. A great 
advance was made when they put on a tremendous i6-ft. stop 
for the pedals. The Temple bencher, Mr. William Burge, 
who was a devoted lover of music, though he knew nothing 
about it technically, declared the effect of it to be 
magnificent, for as he sat in the church he could feel the 
vibration making his spectacles shake on his nose ! We have 
immense new organs in Sydney and St. Louis and elsewhere — 
I will not mention them all by name, but I will only say that I 
think an appropriate motto to fix on the front of each would 
be the words of the Psalmist — you cannot go to a better source 
for a motto — ‘ I am become as it were a monster unto many ’ 
(Ps. Ixxi. 6, Pr. Bk. version). But how much all organists 
desire an organ that is adapted to artistic use ! No matter how 
small the organ is, even if it has only two manuals, it should 
have a reasonable pedal adaptation. A small organ is generally 
considered complete with a single pedal stop — a Bourdon ; 
and the result is very sad. I tried a beautiful little organ the 
other day with some lovely stops — Celeste on the Swell, and so 
on — and I found the only bass I had was a Bourdon which 
would have done very well for Smithfield Market. It nearly 
knocked me down as I sat on the stool. That is not as it 
should be. I am sure Mr. Casson will be glad to answer any 
questions, or give any further information in his power. 

Dr. C. Harford Lloyd. — I should like to ask whether it is 
necessary under Mr. Casson’s system to have a certain fixed 
pedal bass corresponding to the manual combination, or 
whether it is open to the organist to have other pedal 
combinations. Mr. Casson’s idea is exceedingly good, but I 
am not sure whether it is open to the organist to make 
his own selection of pedal stops. I also want to thank 
Mr. Casson for the “ unison off.” It is a most useful 
contrivance. I did not know it was his invention, and as an 
organist I am very grateful to him for it. While I am on my 
legs I should like to ask Mr. Casson one other question, 
though it hardly belongs to the subject of his paper. Some 

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i8 Development of the Resources of the Organ, 

months ago I was shown a German organ somewhere in 
London which had this curious device : some of the pedal 
pipes did duty for two notes, e.g., C and C sharp. Is this a 
contrivance to which Mr. Casson has given his attention ? 
Because, if it is a workable idea, it seems to me we might 
economise a good deal in the direction of organs with more 
pedal stops but with fewer pipes to each. If, for instance, in 
the scale of C you had pipes for only c, d, e, f sharp, g sharp 
a sharp instead of the usual semitones, making the same 
pipes serve also for c sharp, d sharp, /, g, a, h, it would be a 
great saving in expense and space. I do not know what the 
contrivance was ; it may have been a secret ; but it struck me 
as worthy of consideration. 

Mr. Casson. — With regard to the appropriate pedal bass I 
have always recognized in accordance with the teaching of my 
great mentor in all these things, Mr. Best, that the pedal organ 
has three functions, but the primary one is to provide an 
accurate bass. The second is less important, but still very 
important, and that is to provide a perfect obbligato bass — 
a bass of tone distinctive from that of the manuals. You will 
find in practice that one of these Helps will always give you a 
sufficient approximation to this to render the necessary 
additional manipulation very trifling. There is a third office 
which is mentioned in the recommendations of the Royal 
College of Organists, a most artistic suggestion, which has 
never been acted on except by myself, and that is the solo 
capacity of the pedals. In an organ built for Dr. Yorke Trotter 
for the London Academy of Music in Princes Street there 
are two groups of pedal stops, one the pedal bass organ and 
the other the pedal solo organ containing stops for the pedal 
exclusively of a solo character and solo pitch. For instance, 
there is a 4-ft. Oboe, and if I set the 4-ft. Oboe beforehand in 
the solo pedal I have only to touch a stud to shunt the pedal 
bass organ off and take up instantly a solo on the 4-ft. Oboe. 
Touching the other stud I go back to the pedal bass. I am 
much obliged to you for mentioning the matter, for I do not 
wish it to be understood that I regard the pedal as simply a 
bass and nothing else. That is the primary use, and stops 
should be provided for that, including necessarily stops in the 
swell-box. With regard to making pipes do duty for two 
notes each, that has been done by French and German 
builders. The French used it even for the Bourdon, managing 
to produce separate notes even from a stopped pipe. But 
there is a slight difficulty, because if you take, say, a CCC Open 
Diapason and make it act as a CCC sharp or DDD, the pipe 
is decidedly out of scale, and, as we know, if you enlarge the 
relative scale of a pipe by shortening it, it requires not less 
wind but more. Consequently you get the DDD out of scale 
and power. At the same time the difference is not very 


Development of the Resources of the Organ. 


perceptible. The device was used in the well-known chamber 
organ by Mr. Audsley for several of the bass notes of the 
Pedal Open Diapason ; and where you are very hard put to 
it for room, I would use it ; but not otherwise, for it is not 

Mr. L. T. Casson. — I do not think Mr. Casson made him- 
self quite clear on the subject of the combinations for the 
pedal. The pedal stops are so made as to be perfectly free to 
be used or not, and unless the sequence pedal is down the 
helps merely move the stops, but these can be instantly 
manipulated afterwards. But if the sequence pedal is put 
down they will continue to follow whatever changes are made 
in the manual stops. 

Dr. Shinn.— Will Mr. Casson tell us the approximate cost 
of his system compared with the ordinary system ? Taking 
an organ, say, that would cost ;^"6oo in the ordinary way, what 
additional cost would his alterations entail ? 

Mr. Casson. — I can only say the additional mechanism 
is very simple and costs very little. I can hardly go into that 
which encroaches on trade matters. Let me show you the 
method. Here we have the Choir Organ, and here the Solo. 
The way in which it is duplicated is this : these stops are all 
pneumatic, i.e., each is on a pneumatic valve, couplers and 
all, so that when youdrawa stop that stop would under ordinary 
circumstances be brought into action ; but instead of supply- 
ing these valves directly from the bellows I put each group 
in a separate chest. Each stop has a tube leading from its valve 
in its box. All I have to do with these Helps is to turn the 
wind into one chest and out of the other, or conversely. That 
is all that is necessary, and it would cost very little indeed, 
provided you have to start with an organ of a good solid 
round specification, and not a selection of toy-stops — Tenor C 
Piccolos and the like. The specification I should want would 
be devised on the lines that, say, Schulze would have adopted, 
with plenty of doubles. If you build an organ on those lines, 
as it should be built, the expense of the additional 
mechanism is exceedingly trifling. 

Dr. C. Harford Lloyd. — Must not a good many stops 
be extended a whole octave above or below to meet the 
requirements of the manual couplers ? 

Mr. Casson. — If you look at my three-manual specification 
you will see I have the octave duplicated from the Solo ; and 
additional pipes are needed, but they are very small and 
cheap, for I am not in favour of sub-octave couplers. You will 
see that some of the stops used in the Solo are of complete 
compassbelow. TheFluteandtheTubahavethe extra octave 
of pipes, though the latter is not used in the Choir. 

The Chairman. — May I point out that it is only fair to 
bear in mind that if your 18-stop organ costs ;^6oo, then with 
c 2 

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20 Development of the Resources of the Organ. 

these advantages you more than double its capacity. It is 
really an organ with double the number of manuals. 

Dr. Shinn. — And therefore I want to know whether, under 
Mr. Casson’s system, we should be justified in paying double 
the sum for it. 

Mr. Casson. — If you take the price of an organ as stated 
by one of the first-rate London builders, I can make an organ 
of the same size containing all these advantages for practically 
the same price, but I do not pretend I could build an organ 
like this for £600 \ for it is not a cheap way. You must 
have an organ well developed in every way. If you build 
on these lines you can add these things with very little 
additional expense, but if you get a trumpery instrument with 
few doubles the cost of adding it would be verj' great. If you 
are to have an organ at such a price as, say, Mr. Walker 
would charge, these advantages could be included at 
practically the same price as he would charge for the 
instrument without them. 

Mr. Southgate. — I should like to ask whether, when you 
have set a particular combination and you draw more stops 
or alter that combination, the original stops remain out or are 
pushed in ? For in the one case you have to rely on your 

Mr. Casson. — You have to rely on your memory for this 
organ in exactly the same proportion as you would have to at 
Westminster Abbey or St. Paul’s Cathedral, where you have 
five manuals, and in each case one manual has to do double 
duty. If you go from the Swell Organ to the Echo Organ you 
have two sets of combinations to bear in mind for the same 
manual, and you have to bear in mind in what capacity each 
manual is serving. But my arrangement simplifies that, 
because you have to remember what combination you have 
in each organ if you draw a certain combination in the 
Choir with stops and couplers, and also one in the Solo 
Organ. If you touch the Choir or the Solo help you do not 
move the stops in either case. You have to remember what 
you have in the Choir when you are playing on the Choir. If 
you forget, you can easily look at the stops just as in any 
other organ. 

Mr. Southgate. — Practically that comes to very much the 
same system as has been used at the Crystal Palace — that of 
wind-ventils, for they cut the wind off certain particular 
registers though the stop-handles may be out. 

Dr. Maclean. — Pardon me: the Ventil system on the 
Palace organ was perfectly hopeless. Now Mr. Casson shows 
everything except which of these you are playing on ; the 
only thing you have to recollect is which of these touches you 
have pulled out. I have played on the Crystal Palace organ, 
so I am speaking from experience. 

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Development of the Resources of the Organ. 

Mr. Statham. — In the Crystal Palace organ, as I understand, 
the composition pedal does not even remain down when you 
press it. If I remember rightly, Best was very much 
bothered with this at one of the Handel festivals. I have 
been playing two or three times on a large chamber organ 
which Mr. Casson built ; and I certainly think his pedal Help 
is a most ingenious thing; but I noticed that it sometimes 
brought out not exactly the pedal you wanted. For instance, 
I wanted to play in the Swell with Oboe and I found the pedal 
gave the bass for Oboe also. But there are some passages in 
which you do not want that. At the same time I think his 
invention is a great addition to the facility of organ playing 
in many ways. While speaking of this, it may be observed 
that there are many arrangements of chorales by Bach in 
which, though there is no distinct direction about stops, it is 
quite clear that the composer meant the Canto Fermo to be 
played on an eight-foot pedal ; it was really a Tenor and the 
manual part was to go below it. There is another point on 
which I am afraid I must go against Mr. Casson. I think 
that however ingenious may be the arrangement for having 
the Choir on the Great Organ manual, this can never 
compensate for the two manuals. I was to have had the 
pleasure of giving one or two recitals on a large chamber 
organ of Mr. Casson’s. I tried for a whole afternoon to get 
what I wanted, and I gave it up. There are a number of 
passages in which you want to alternate the Great and the 
Choir immediately ; and there was not time for it. So, though 
you may with a two-manual organ be enabled to have a 
Choir Organ without pushing in all the Great stops, it will not 
compensate for the separate manuals, and it is far better to 
spend a little extra money and have a third manual. 

Mr. Casson. — With regard to the last objection I may state 
that the lower row of keys has the Great and the Choir ; on 
the second row there are three organs, one of which is a Choir 
Organ ; so that the difficulty of changing the tones is simply 
that in that particular organ I have a second Choir Organ on 
a second manual, so that the change from the manual below 
to the manual above is perfectly practicable. 

Mr. Statham. — It does not instantly give the stops suitable 
for a Choir Organ ; I have tried it. 

Mr. Casson. — The organ that Mr. Statham tried was based 
on Great, Swell and Solo manuals. In recent designs I have 
Swell, Great, Choir in the ordinary way, but I have also 
Echo, Second Choir, and Solo, so that they can be played in 
the ordinary way. I have not been unmindful of the warning 
given me privately by my friend on that very subject, and I 
certainly think it ought to be considered. It is remedied in 
my designs now by having the organ in the ordinary form, 
and the secondary departments are allotted differently. I 

Diyiii.:tAj uy \juogIc 

22 Development of the Resources of the Organ. 

do not think I need occupy your time longer with the Ventil 
system mentioned by Mr. Southgate. It is very primitive ; 
at the same time there is something to be said for it on the 
part of those who have mastered its difficulties. Mr. Best 
certainly mastered it, and so did Dr. Kendrick Pyne on 
the Manchester organ. Certainly the manipulation of the 
latter organ is a lesson to anybody in the matter of eclectic 
registering. At the same time it is a primitive and clumsy 
device, and very difficult to master. As for the Palace 
Organ pedals, Mr. Best told me that not only were they 
difficult to master, but they did not even hitch down. I 
told him I thought it the most idiotic device I had ever 
heard of in an organ ; it happened to be his own. But he 
never objected to a good stand-up fight, and we had a good 
time discussing it. 

The Chairman. — Organists, like other mortals, never get 
all they want ; but I am going to ask you to give a cordial 
vote of thanks to the lecturer for his very able and interesting 

(Vote of thanks passed unanimously.) 

Mr. Casson. — I thank you for receiving me so kindly. So 
far from you being indebted to me, I feel it is I who am 
indebted to you. 

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December i8 , 1905. 

In the Chair. 



By E. W. Naylor, M.A., Mus.D. Cantab. 

It is twelve years since I read a paper before this Society ; 
and circumstances have prevented me from attending the 
meetings as I should have wished. 

I am all the more pleased to accept the invitation of the 
Council to speak to-day on a subject which is partly of the 
Council's choice, having been selected by them from several 

May I say that I can pretend to no special knowledge of 
Heinrich Schutz. My only hope is that this paper may 
serve as an introduction to a few of his works, which may 
help some reader of the Proceedings to appreciate the 
greatness of Schtitz, who is little known except to professed 
students, in spite of the fact that twelve folio volumes of his 
compositions have been published since 1885 by Messrs. 
Breitkopf and Hartel. 

There is no need to touch on the life of SchQtz. I will 
merely mention that he lived to the age of eighty-seven, and 
died thirteen years before Bach was bom. His period (1585- 
1672) was that most important one, the 17th century, which 
saw the death of the ancient polyphonic school of classical 
music, and the early growth of mc^ern romantic music as we 
understand it. 

His eighty-seven years were employed in the work of a 
Kapellmeister. He was attached to the service of the Elector 
of Saxony. Many of his works were published during his 
lifetime, at such places as Dresden and Leipzig, with dates 
spreading over half a century: for instance, 1623 (“History 
of the Resurrection"), or i666 (the “St. Matthew Passion”). 
Other important dates are 1636 and 1639, when the two 
volumes of “ Spiritual Consorts” (Kleine Geistliche Concerte) 
were first printed. 

During his long life Schutz produced church music of 
every sort, with or without orchestral accompaniment, and 
written for every possible combination of voices : e.g., cantatas 
for 2 trebles, for treble and tenor, for 2 tenors, for 2 trebles 
and bass, for 3 basses, for alto, tenor and bass, besides the 
more usual arrangements of 4, 5, or 6 parts. 

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24 Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 

The quantity is alarming. In the Breitkopf edition the 
amount is something over 2,000 pages, folio, rather closely 

On the original title-pages, Schiitz’s name appears, according 
to the fashion of the time, in a Latinized form, viz., 
Henricus Sagittarius. This of course is only a curiosity, but 
it may be of interest to add it to a small list of similar cases, 
such as Cornelius Stein, who called himself “ Cornelius k 
Lapide,” or Holtzmann and Schwarzerde, who translated 
their names into Greek instead of Latin, viz. Xylander and 

It is absolutely out of the question to give any proper 
account of Schfltz’s remains in a short paper. What I wish 
to do is merely to illustrate some of his characteristics. 

These seem to me fairly presented in four headings : — 

1. Rhetorical setting of words. 

2. Dramatic expression. 

3. Use of harmony as colour. 

4. Chromatic harmony. 

I need scarcely guard myself by warning you that I have 
no intention of setting Schiitz up as the inventor of any of 
these things. As we all know, the effort — 

to span 

Words with just note and accent, not to scan 

With Midas’ ears, committing short and long 

has never been peculiar to anj’ particular period. Again, 
chromatic harmony of a very complete sort may be found in 
Elizabethan music, some years before Schutz, e.g., Thomas 
Tomkins’ Pavana, which may be seen in the Fitzwilliam 
Virginal Book [edited by Messrs. Fuller Maitland and 
Barclay Squire, and published by Breitkopf] , vol. ii., p. 54.* 

1 only mean that these are distinct characteristics of 
SchQtz’s music ; and they are easily shown to be so in some 
representative passages taken from the Cantatas and other 
works which I now bring before you. 

I. Rhetorical Setting of Words. 

Schiitz’s care to accent his words with intelligence and 
accuracy, so far as the natural stiffness of musical rhythm 
allows of this being done, is coupled with a no less interesting 
tendency to let the course of the musical notes take the 
natural shape of ordinary speech. For example, the duet for 

2 tenors (vol. vi., p. 29,) published in 1636. If the words 
are read to the musical rhythm of the notes, it is easily seen 

* The chromatic passage from Tomkins is quoted on p. 18 of “ An 
Elizabethan Virginal Book” by £. W. Naylor (J. M. Dent and Co.). Also 
see, in the same work, the account of chromaticism in G. Farnaby, Tisdall, 
and Tallis, on pp. 99, 128, 174. 

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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 25 

how carefully Schiitz has tried to preserve the correct reading 
of a public speaker. 

“ Bins bitte ich vom Herren, das hatte ich gern, dass 
ich im Hause des Herrn moge bleiben mein Lebelang” 
(Psalm xxvii., v. 4) : — 


n 1 — 1 


— 1 

— 1 




w rj 

^ IT - ^ 


Eins bit • te ich vom Her - ren, das hat - te ich gem. 

and : — 

dass ich im Hau - se des Heim mo - ge blei - ben 

Here the relative importance of “Eins,” the relative 
unimportance of the whole phrase “ das hatte ich gern,” and 
the sense of “bleiben” (abide), are well expressed by mere 
length of notes. At the same time, the rise and fall of the 
melody corresponds closely with good reading. This latter 
point is illustrated a few bars later, where the second voice 
enthusiastically interrupts the first singer with a rhetorical 
embellishment of “mein Lebelang”: — 

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26 Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schutz. 

Then again, immediately succeeding, we have a successful 
attempt to express the devotional attitude by the low pitch of 
the notes, at the words — “ to behold the fair beauty of the 
Lord, and to visit his Temple.” 

We shall observe many examples of this sort of thing 
elsewhere : so I pass to the next point. 

2. The Dramatic Expression in Schutz’s Works. 

This is, as might be expected, exemplified in the settings of 
the Passion. But I include in this division not only Dramatic 
Recitative, Declamation, &c., but the various instances of 
Schiitz’s attempts to apply musical means of expression to 
emotion of a more private character. 

I will here call your attention to a particularly beautiful Solo 
Cantata by Schutz for tenor and organ, which I have had the 
pleasure of bringing before musical people in Cambridge on 
several occasions, when it has been sung by Mr. J. Reed. 
It is found in the complete works, vol. vi., p. 97, 
“ O misericordissime Jesu.” Every bar is worth close 
study. The principal feature is the frequent use of repetition 
in sequence, so as to produce a feeling of growing intensity 
of emotion. 

The piece (date, 1639, Dresden) is almost entirely composed 
of phrases repeated in sequence : — 


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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 27 

The upward sequence in the first three phrases, here given, 
well illustrates the devotional attitude rising into controlled 
spiritual passion, which sinks again as the physical power 
dies down at the repetition of the succeeding words “ Salus ad 
te confugientium ” (Safety of those who take refuge in Thee). 

In contrast we have a fine touch of monotone at the words 
“ omnium peccatorum ” in the fifth line, where the repetition 
of the one note admirably conveys the notion of strength and 
the power to complete : — 






O Je - su. dul - - cis re - mis - si - o 





■■”1 ~ _ 


»-r7 ^ 

W 1 


^ { 


om - ni - um pec - ca - to - rum. 

An excellent instance of dramatic characterization is found 
in “ The History of the Resurrection ” (Auferstehung), which 
was published in 1623, and is the earliest of the great series 
of works including the four “ Passions ” and the “ Seven 
Words,” &c., contained in the first volume of the complete 
edition of Schiitz. 

The reference to the passage alluded to is vol. i., p. 28, 
where Cleophas and the other disciple converse with the risen 
Jesus on the way to Emmaus. The Jesus, represented in this 
work by a Duet of Alto and Tenor, not by a solo singer, has 
just put the question (Luke xxiv., 17) “What manner of 
communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye 
walk, and are sad ?" The Narrator, accompanied by chords 

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28 Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schuts, 

on four viols, continues, “ And the one of them, whose name 
was Cleophas, answering said unto him” [the speech of 
Cleophas, given to a tenor, accompanied by Continuo only, 
then succeeds] : 

“ Art thou alone amongst the strangers in Jerusalem, who 
hast not known the things which are come to pass there in 
these days.” 

Here is the passage, with German words : — 




Bist du al - lein, 

or Lute, I 

H. ScHtiiz, 1623. 
St. Luke, xxiv., 18. 


bist du al - lein, 


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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 


(mtHO forte e ritenuto.) 

— 1— 

1 1 — r 

-ii — rg 

U— 1 ^ 

rin - nen ge-sche - hen ist. 


nicht wis - se 





^ r T 


rM [K-lK. f*-N— 1 ^ 

±4B^ : .zJa 

was in die- sen Ta - gen da - rin - nen ge-sche - hen ist ? 

The whole tone of the passage is admirable, as a dramatic 
exhibition of feeling on the part of Cleophas, who is conceived 
of by Schiitz as a somewhat excitable man, suffering under 
the severe mental strain of the Crucifixion horrors. We may 
allow ourselves to remember also that the wife of Cleophas 
was one of the three women who stood by the Cross. The 
two disciples were full of the deeds of the past days, and the 
very idea of a man not knowing about these things is too much 
for the Cleophas poetically imagined by Heinrich Schiitz ; so 
he breaks out, first indignant, then in sheer distress at the 
misery he looks back upon, and finally in broken exhaustion, 
as he thinks of the destruction of the hope of Israel, in the 
last repetition of the words “ der nicht wisse, &c.” 

You notice here not only another example of Schiitz's care 
to accent words correctly, but a well-marked instance of the 
tendency to use sequential repetition for an expressive purpose, 
already exemplified in “ O misericordissime Jesu.” Cleophas’ 
music is here altogether made of two passages in sequence, 
“ bist du allein ” three times in ascending sequence ; and the 
longer sentence “ der nicht wisse,” &c., beginning once on C, 
then on D, and finally, as the speaker fails in spirit, on the 
lower A. 

You also observe how the Continuo follows the main 
sentiment of the words in its change of character at bar 6.. 

While speaking of the “ Resurrection,” I cannot refrain from 
naming the Duet for the 2 Tenors, Cleophas and his friend, 
to the words ‘‘Abide with us” (Bleibe bei uns) which is 
on p. 32, shortly after the passage just considered. It contains 
as much true beauty of sentiment as could well be 

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3 ° 

Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 

comprehended in less than twenty bars. The sympathetic 
. hearer can do no less than see the two men plainly before him, 
as they stand in the fading light of the sinking sun, begging 
the still unknown Teacher to stay and share their evening 
meal. None but a great genius could have written the fin^ 
bars, to the words “ Und der Tag hat sich geneiget ” ; it is a 
picture of the departing day, and yet is altogether separate 
from the class of deliberate imitations which were still 
considered bearable a century later, such as the cock-crow 
and the scourging of the Bach “ Passions ” ; separate also from 
that other strange class of “ Symbolic ” or “ Curious ” 
representations exemplified in literature by Herbert’s poem, 
“ Our Life is hid with Christ in God,” where a whole sentence 
is concealed in the ten lines beginning with the first syllable 
of line I, and proceeding obliquely through the second and 
following lines until the final word is seen in the last syllable 
of line 10 ; or in Herrick’s “ Pillar of Fame,” where the lines 
are arranged in the form of a heavy column with base and 

Schiitz himself provides an extraordinary instance of this 
“Symbolic” or “Curious” sort of expression form in the 
closing bars of one of the two-part cantatas published in 1639 
(Works, vol. vi. 119), “Wann unsre Augen schlafen ein,” 
which also has Latin words of the same import “ Quando se 
claudunt lumina.” The gist of the words is — “ When our 
eyes are closed in sleep, may our heart and mind nevertheless 
be valiant and watchful, lest we should fall in sin and shame.” 
Here follows the strange setting of the last phrase : — 





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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 31 

In this very curious passage, Schiitz deliberately applies 
himself to use the subject which he has already set to these 
same words, so as to express, in a manner as absolutely 
mediaeval in tone as could be imagined, the notion of just 
avoiding and escaping sin, as it were by the skin of the teeth. 
He does it by purposely using syncopations which cause the 
music to just miss falling into the sin of sins, viz., that 
bottomless pit of consecutive fifths, on the edge of which the 
passage preserves a precarious footing. 

I would not direct your attention to this feature of Schutz’s 
piece, except as a very quaint illustration of the kind of 
attempt at “ expression ” which he, amongst others, was 
certainly on the way to leave behind him for something far 

It is in no way to be taken as a characteristic example of 
Schiitz. Nor, I think, need we look on it merely as a 
ridiculous curiosity. I think we ought to look on these 
ancient failures with great respect. At least, the will to 
express was present. The means of expression also were in 
Schutz’s hand. He used the wrong tool ! That is all we 
dare say, when we compare this one passage with others, 
which are of such a widely dififerent character that it is 
difficult for persons not accustomed to these literary monsters 
to believe in the common authorship to which they are 

I have already reminded you that this sort of thing went 
on and was accepted as possible long after Schutz’s time. 
Bach, who represents the most thoughtful musicianship of 
the 1 8th century, besides the absurd imitations named above, 
has left us instances of quite another sort, e.g., in the cantata 
“ Bleib’ bei uns,” where we see how this incompatible form 
of expression may occasionally prove harmless, or even melt 
insensibly into the general colouring of the picture. I allude 
to the continual repietition of one note in the accompaniment 
of the first chorus, by which Bach refers throughout the 
movement to the sense of the word “Abide.” Fortunately 
this is a case where the “ conceit ” is easily missed by the 
hearer, and if the reiterated notes are observed, they are 
unconsciously translated into the terms in which the rest of 
the composition is couched. 

I cannot help illustrating my meaning here, by naming 
another example of Herbert, who in his poem “ Easter Wings” 
gives us an excellent literary instance of what I have just 
pointed out in music, viz., the possibility that a quaint 
“ conceit ” may actually serve a purpose far beyond its own 
proper power or scope, by suffering a change in the mind of 
the reader, who, as it were, frees the creature from its 
original bondage and gross material existence, just as (if I 
dare say it) Man may change to Angel in the mind of God. 

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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schutz. 

You have only to read (aloud, of course) the first of these 
two “ Easter Wings,” and you will at once be aware that the 
absurd device of composing the words so as to produce the 
material shape of Wings on the page, has in the reading been 
translated into terms of a truer Art, which appeals, not to the 
eye fixed on the printed paper, but to the heart, the only 
object of true poetry. 

We now go on to our third class of true characteristics of 
Heinrich Schutz, viz. : — 


May I venture to allude to the view which seems to have 
been taken in the i6th century, of chords, i.e., separate 

Chords appear to have been regarded as an “ accident ” of 
contrapuntal combination of parts. For instance — I give an 
example in three parts, which contains nothing that cannot 
be found often in the music of Schtitz’s boyhood : — 

^ ini' 


F ^ 

The chord marked with * was regarded as an “ accident ” 
of the counterpoint of the three separate voice-parts. 

But we nowadays might not only conceive of this chord as 
a separate being in itself, but would probably give it a long 
name, viz., “ Fundamental chromatic chord of the tonic minor 
thirteenth.” I make the description as long as possible, in 
order to point the difference from the i6th century view. 

But there are not wanting signs of a new view of such a 
matter. Take Byrd’s “ Cantiones Sacrae ” (published 1589). 
The setting of “ Domine, tu jurasti,” at the first occurrence 
of the words ‘‘ Nunc, Domine, memor esto,” &c., has this very 
chord, introduced as follows : — 






Nunc. Do - - mi - ne, 


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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 33 

In this case, although we can still presume the marked chord 
to be merely a result of the combination of five melodies, and 
call the discord a suspension, nevertheless I more than 
suspect Byrd of arranging the chord on purpose, in order to 
intensify the expression of the words, which imply a fervency 
almost approaching moral overstrain. 

Schatz, however, goes much farther, and deliberately uses 
chords as a means of colouring his words. 

It is a long way, even from so advanced a “ romantic ” as 
B3rrd, to the effort of Schatz, in the Cantata for two bass voices 
and organ, “ Farchte dich nicht" (Be not afraid, I am with 
thee), which was published in 1636, and may be found in the 
complete works, vol. vi., p. 32. 







t- q 

— LUsiJ — 

m f- 

po rrs 

-e H t 









0 ■ - 





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34 Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiits, 

Here the extreme harmony of D, B flat, F sharp, is not a 
fortuitous result, but a deliberate stroke, or patch of colour, 
put in on purpose, with the certain intention of indicating 
more clearly the sense of the word “ Fear.” This is a very 
remarkable instance of Schiitz’s constant endeavour to use 
Harmony in a sense quite foreign to the general practice of 
his time. 

Nothing could be more of the present day than this, which 
was certainly written half a century before the birth of Bach 
and Handel. 

Imagine the first two bars scored in the modern manner for 
such brass and reed instruments as were known to Schiitz, 
t.e., trombones, double - bassoons, serpents. Imagine the 
passage repeated in sequence, in Schfltz’s remarkable 
manner, and we have at once a musical sentence which 
would be fit for a place in Wagner’s “ Nibelungen ” Trilogy — 
thus : — 

in octaves 
and a 

I do not believe this would have startled Schutz nearly 
so much as Wagner’s work startled the foolish persons whose 
colossal ignorance led the English (and other) public by the 
nose in the “ sixties ” of the dead 19th century. 

Fancy an “ Athenaeum ” newspaper of the year 1636 ! 
Fancy also that the intelligence of the Great British public 
has been awakened to the fact of H. Schiitz’s existence and 
gigantic power 1 Fancy an article on Schutz, containing such 
expressions as the following : “ Schutz .... the 

<fe-composer whom the Elector of Saxony picked out when 
under discredit, obscurity, and exile .... has presented 
lately to the public of Leipzig his horrible and insolent 
setting of the words, ‘ Be not afraid,’ ” &c. 

“ For the credit of German good taste, it may be said that 
the work was received in dead silence, only broken by two 
hisses. However, neither the man nor his music is, to our 
poor judgment, worth quarrelling about.” 

Can you believe that I am merely quoting (with the 
necessary changes of names) a string of phrases about Wagner, 

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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 35 

hich you may read for yourselves in the “Athenaeum” of 
1865 ? 

Many other instances of Schiitz’s habit of using chords as 
colour may be brought forward, but 1 must content myself 
with only one or two more. 

One is a particularly charming attempt to illustrate the 
tenderness of pity implied in the words “ O barmherziger 
Vater ” (O compassionate Father), at the end of a four-part 
cantata of 1636. Works, vi. 58 : — 

O barm-herz - i - ger Va 


Ik “= — 1 

1 ! 

1 J 

Ife,. • 

■ r- rr 

O barm-herz - - i - ger Va 

- - i - ger Va - 




O barm-herz 

1 I /— ■ 




O barm-herz -i- ger Va - 



The next example I give is a clear instance of a major 
chord being changed to a minor for the sake of expression. 
The case occurs in a solo cantata for Treble or Tenor (Works, 
vi. 9), beginning “ O susser, O freundlicher.” The second 
sentence is as follows : — 


wie hoch . 



bast du uns e - lende Menschen ge - lie - bet, 

^ jg- ^ J -lal- I 


O — 


10 P>“ 

I I 


The change from F major to F minor at the word “ elende ” 
(wretched) seems very effective. 

Besides the chromatic harmony set to the first words in 
this piece, the last four lines (vol. vi. pp. 10, ii) are worth 
attention as a very first-rate illustration of Schtitz’s custom 
of intensifying expression by sequential repetition. The 
passage begins at the words, “ ach, ach, dass ich bald zu dir 
kommen,” which appear five times in different parts of the 
scale, during the four lines named, 

D 2 

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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 

4. Chromatic Harmony in SchOtz. 

The solo cantata just quoted from provides a delightful 
example of this characteristic of Schutz. Here is the first 
phrase, written out as for a treble voice : — 

O su - sser, O freund • li - cher, 

at which point the piece joins on to the extract given 
immediately above, viz., the words “ Wie hoch hast du uns 
elende Menschen geliebet.” 

Another striking instance is in the cantata for soprano and 
bass, “ Wann unsre Augen schlafen ein,” already referred to 
in another illustration. {See Works, vi. 117, 118.) Here we 
find the general idea, of physical sleep coming on, expressed 
by slow, descending chromatic scale passages. 

The first bars are as follows : — 





Au - gen schlaf • en ein, 

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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schutz. 37 

A little farther on we have the voices closer together, and 
more of it ; — 

Wann uns-re Au - gen schlaf- en ein, 

ein, wann uns-re Au - gen schlaf - en ein, so lass das 

schlaf - en ein, wann uns-re Au - gen 

Herz doch wacker sein 

schlaf - en ein. 

Three bars later Schutz shows himself a true member of 
the great family of real musicians who care nothing for 
consequences, and ride for every hedge that is in their line. 
His persistent faithfulness to the subject brings him to an 
extreme harmony which probably pleased him, and would 
have pleased him more still if he had tried adding one more 
vocal part, with a G in the penultimate chord : — 

Wann uns-re Au - gen schlaf - en . . ein. 

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38 Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 

Again, there is a remarkable passage (Works, i. 171) in Schtitz’s 
“Christmas Oratorio” or “History of the Birth of Jesus 
Christ.” The words of the prophet Jeremias, quoted by 
St. Matthew (ii. 18), “ In Rama was there a voice heard, 
lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel 
weeping for her children,” &c., are set by Schutz in his best 
chromatic style, and with the additional poetic touch of a sort 
of echo in the accompaniment, which I suppose he intended to 
represent the reiterated cries of the bereaved mothers, thrown 
backwards and forwards from the rocky sides of the mountain 
passes (Ramah is represented in the German version by the 
word Gebirge). 

From " The Birth of Jesus Christ,” 




H. Schutz, 1664. 
St. Matt. ii. 18. 

1 j f 

Auf dem Ge 

. . J J J 

I.. 1. - k 

- bir - ge hat man ein Ge - 

ill J 


— i — 2— m W 

m = m 0 

L-P f 1 f L 

n r 

0 ^ Cl 

\fr ** w Ui J 2 Li J 1 L 

-L Q 

za 1 

schrei ge - ho - ret, viel Klag - ens, 


tw.. 1 

IF r 1 J 0 fD DC 

2 _ 

1 r- -p— C ' -1 ^ - 1 1 1 1 1 — F |=C 

Wei - nens 

und Heu 

— j — ^ 

lens, . 

' mp 

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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 39 

Besides the chromaticism, and the echo-like repetitions in the 
accompaniment, a p»oint worthy of remark is the long note to 
the second syllable of “ Heulens," which gives a striking 
effect, if sustained well over the instrumental melody corre- 
sponding to it. I have indicated possible marks of expression. 

A final example must be that from a cantata for two 
tenors, date 1636 (Works, vi. 30.), “ O hilf Christe," or 
“ Christe Deus adjuva." The rising chromatic scale is used 
here to express the pain of Christ’s Passion, the German words 
being “durch dein bitter Leiden." 

Here is an extract : — 

H. SchUtz, 1636. 

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40 Some Characteristics of Heinrich SchUtz, 

The Latin version has “propter passionem” instead of 
“durch dein bitter Leiden,’’ and I think sounds almost 
better when sung. 

This paper must now come to an end. Many things that I 
should wish to speak of are outside the limits of my plan. 
For instance, the noble six-part Litany, and its curious 
connection with the “ St. Luke Passion ” which has been 
ascribed (against all internal probability) to J. S. Bach ; the 
numberless points of interest in Schutz’s “ Passion ’’ settings, 
their connection with the mediaeval plain-song of the Cantus 
Passionis, and their probable influence over Bach ; the 
orchestral work of Schiitz ; the historical position to be 
assigned to Schutz, his claim to a place in the direct line of 
our musical pedigree ; and so forth. 

On the present occasion it is impossible to do more than 
suggest these as subjects for further study. 

At least, we have remembered the name of one who, in 
all probability, made the very existence of the “ St. Matthew 
Passion” of J. S. Bach a possible thing. 


The Chairman. — It will be our first duty to return a hearty 
vote of thanks to Dr. Naylor for the interesting and most 
excellent Paper he has given us on a musician of whom most 
of us know little more than the name. He himself appears to 
have felt, judging from the remarks at the close of his Paper, 
that he had not said all that he would like to have done 
about this remarkable musician, and I venture to suggest that 
he might continue his studies of Schutz, and later on tell us 
something more about him and his career than he has been 
enabled to do to-day. I am sure that, considering how little 
this music is known and understood, we should welcome him 
very much indeed if he would say something more about this 
old German musician. I fancy a great many people who are 
worshippers of Bach imagine that he invented a good deal 
which had been done before by Schtitz ; but then we had 
practically no opportunity of knowing the music that Schutz 
wrote. It is quite true that Messrs. Breitkopf and Hartel 
have published several volumes of his works, but they are not 
accessible to most people. Really, when one considers the 
examples we have heard this afternoon, and remembers they 
were written long before the time of Bach, they must have 
been startling to some of us who fancied that a century before 

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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz, 41 

Bach there was no such chromatic harmony or ingenious 
constructive counterpoint. I was sorry that in giving his 
account of Schiitz, Dr. Naylor did not tell us a little about the 
personal career of this early musician. It would have been 
very interesting indeed if we could have found out how it was 
that Schiitz exhibited so remarkable an advance in his music 
beyond all that had been current before his time in 
Germany. Possibly the explanation is that he went to Italy 
and studied under Gabrielli, and that the stiff German 
music that he carried with him gathered in that sunny 
clime some of the melodic grace that we always find in the 
music of Italy. We should also like to know whether his 
works from first to last showed any consistent and continual 
advance. From the examples we have had given us we have 
no opportunity of determining that. Then it seems a little 
curious that a man so gifted as a musician and so truly 
poetical, with the orchestra at his command and the voices at 
his hand, did not feel some desire to write for the orchestra 
alone. Certainly Gabrielli, his master, wrote “Fancies" and 
other pieces for viols ; and one is a little curious to know why 
Schiitz did not follow his example. There may have been 
some particular reason, or perhaps he wrote some such music 
that has not been preserved. Dr. Naylor called attention to 
that which is quite apparent in the examples he gave, — and I 
am sure you will thank him especially for the charming way 
in which these were given, and the appreciative intelligence 
of the words and music — the fact that Schiitz was remarkable 
for placing his accents in accordance with the quantity of the 
words. There was an Englishman of about the same period of 
whom the same might have been said. Milton wrote of 
Henry Lawes and his airs : — 

“ Harry, whose tuneful and well-measured song, 

First taught our English music how to span 
Words with just note and accent, not to scan." 

And Waller (1635) also writing about Lawes and his true 
musical feeling says : “ Let those which only warble long 
and gargle in their throat a song, content themselves with 
ut, re, mi. Let words and sense be set by these.” 
Possibly it shows that there was a feeling arising at the time 
that the old mechanical contrapuntal music was passing 
away, and that the younger men grew up with the 
feeling that music should express emotion, and that at least 
the melodic portion of it was of far more imjjortance than in 
the old time when music was constructed from a different point 
of view. I merely point out that it was a little curious that 
about the same time there should have been an Englishman 
who did somewhat the same as Schiitz achieved. If any of 
you will look at the old, stiff German music you will notice 

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42 Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 

what an emotional improvement Schiitz seems to have made. 
The examples given of his dramatic characteristics I thought 
most admirable. It seemed as if he had studied the exact 
meaning of the words and the sense he wanted to attach to 
them ; and I cannot conceive that any music could be 
written more adequately to express the meaning of those 
words. Think what an advance that is on what had gone 
before. You cannot find this feature surpassed in the works 
of Handel, or even in Mendelssohn and later composers. 
Dr. Naylor made an interesting side observation in speaking 
of the poetry of Herrick and the works of George Herbert 
being written in fanciful ways, say, to imitate the form of an 
angel, or a bird, or a fiddle. I think he rather unduly 
deprecated the effect of that as not being quite artistic. But 
I do not know why we should quarrel with it as a form of art 
because it appeals to the eye as well as the ear. If verses are 
written in the shape of a fiddle I should not demur provided 
the sense they convey is commensurate with the object set forth. 
The example of criticism which Dr. Naylor quoted from the 
Athenceum was written by old Chorley. He was a good 
servant of the Athenceum, but a very prejudiced man. In the 
middle of his career he became acquainted with the works of 
Mendelssohn, and then a worshipper of that composer. He 
believed also in Handel — I am not sure about Bach — and just 
a few more ; everyone else he went for. I think he must be 
forgiven. We all grow wiser by time ; if we were to take up 
the criticisms of several important compositions when they first 
appeared we should hardly like to put our sign-manuals 
to them to-day. The examples given of chromatic 
harmonies surprised me greatly, I was always under the 
impression that till Bach’s time people were very chary of 
modulating into any key or using any harmonies outside of 
the simplest relations. I think one of the reasons why 
Bach wrote his 48 Preludes and Fugues was as a 
protest against these limitations. It is very difficult for 
us, now that a different temperament has been established, 
to say how persons must have felt on first hearing these 
chromaticisms. There are some here, I daresay, who can 
remember organs being tuned to the old unequal temperament. 
They have now been altered ; and our ears are accustomed 
to a temperament that treats all keys alike. But on the 
instruments of those days chromatic harmonies must have 
sounded terrible. If they were experiments he was a very 
bold man to make them. If these have been accidents in 
harmony they were very pleasant accidents. In one example 
that Dr. Naylor played of a chromatic descent it Hashed 
across me that that is the subject which Handel uses in his 
oratorio “ Belshazzar." There is a most interesting little 
fugue, if I remember rightly, in which the river Euphrates 

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Some Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 43 

flows away from the city, and Handel has a chromatic 
subject which expresses the slow degrees of the motion with 
marvellous picturesqueness. That subject is in Schiitz. I 
should like to ask Dr. Naylor whether Schiitz shows any 
special treatment of the national chorales. They were so 
constantly used by Bach in his oratorios for the people to 
sing that I should like to know if there were any examples of 
chorale treatment by this earlier master. I will now ask 
those present to express a hearty vote of thanks to Dr. Naylor, 
and will then invite you to make any observations on his 
pap>er. (Vote of thanks passed unanimously.) 

Mr. J. F. Barnett. — May I ask if, in the collection 
published by Messrs. Breitkopf and Hirtel, any portions of 
his opera “ Dafne ” are included ? 

Dr. Naylor. — I think not. 

Mr. Barnett. — I must confess I knew very little about 
Schiitz before I came here ; but I noticed that he wrote one 
opera, and I have heard he was looked on as the father of 
German opera. It would be very interesting if that work 
had been extant. If not, it is very unfortunate. I have 
enjoyed this lecture enormously, and I shall take an early 
opportunity of investigating those volumes when I have 
sufficient time to do so. I fear I shall never have time to go 
through them all, and must make my selection in accordance 
with Dr. Naylor’s lecture. 

Mr. Langley. — I think in the article in Grove’s Dictionary 
a reference is made to a selection from Schiitz’s Passions to 
form a single Passion. I should like to know whether it is 
reliable and correct in its text. 1 should also like to 
express my high appreciation of Dr. Naylor’s paper. I know 
practically nothing of these works ; but it has made me feel 
some of Dr. Naylor’s enthusiasm for his subject. It seems 
that the one great characteristic of Schiitz’s art-work was that 
he kept his eye on the subject which he was trying to depict ; 
and really in method was 300 years before his time. He 
anticipated that fine sense of rhetoric which is so noticeable 
in Wagner’s music. 

Mr. Statham. — As it has been suggested that Dr. Naylor 
should return to the subject, could not we hear some of these 
movements which he has done so much to give us an idea 
about ? It would be an exceedingly interesting thing if we 
could. I should like to say that it is a mistake to suppose 
that Chorley did not care about Bach. He was a very 
conservative man, but he wrote much that was of real value; 
and his chapter in “ Modern German Music " on Schneider’s 
organ-playing in the Sophien-Kirche at Dresden is one of 
the most eloquent appreciations of Bach’s organ-music that 
I have ever read. 

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44 Soiue Characteristics of Heinrich Schiitz. 

The Chairman. — With regard to “ Dafne,” I must say it is 
quite true that Schiitz was the father of German opera. 
Unfortunately we do not know what the music was like 
because, though the words remain, the music was burned. I 
can plainly see there is a desire that this subject be resumed, 
and so the remarks to that effect shall be transmitted to the 
Council, especially with regard to letting the members hear 
some ofSchutz’s works. His place is very much that of our 
own Byrde ; but one would like to have a better definition 
than that, and to hear some more of what he did for music, not 
only in the works that Dr. Naylor has given us, but in others. 
It is quite true, as Mr. Statham says, that Chorley was an 
excellent writer, but he was certainly a prejudiced man. 

Dr. Naylor. — I am very much obliged to you, ladies and 
gentlemen, for your kind appreciation of the Paper ; and I 
should like to say first that the carrying out of Mr. Statham’s 
suggestion would give me great pleasure. It need not be on 
a large scale. One or two men could give an audience a 
very good idea of many of his works. Some of the best are 
duets or solos, and his accompaniments could very well be 
played on the piano. He does not seem to have been very 
particular as to what instruments played his accompaniments. 
He says they may be played on the organ, lute, pandora, or 
anything of that sort ; so I think he would have been 
satisfied with a grand piano. That and a couple of voices 
could give us a creditable performance of some good things 
of his. As to that Passion selection, I have seen it, and it 
seemed to be all right so far as it went. But there is an 
objection to making such a selection from different works 
even when they are on the same subject. With regard to 
the treatment of chorales, Schutz treated the chorale very 
much as Bach did. You will find not only harmonized 
versions, but cantatas, constructed on portions of well-known 
hymns, just as Bach has treated them. One of the parts 
will sing the tune in long notes, and the other parts will make 
imitations round it, and perhaps instrumental parts will be 
added to that. They are used contrapuntally to construct 
movements upon. One occurs to me at this moment ; it is in 
four parts, on the chorale “ Nun komm der heiden Heiland.” 
The parts are treated in a sort of canonic form and the tune 
appears in different parts of the scale and in different keys in 
the course of the movement. I am very gratified that the 
Paper has given pleasure to those who are here, and I trust 
the proposal to have some of the movements performed will 
come to something. I think an hour might very profitably 
be spent in the performance of them. 

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January i6, 1906. 

W. H. CUMMINGS, Esq., Mus.D., F.S.A., 

In the Chair. 


By Clifford B. Edgar, Mus.B., B.Sc. 

The Musical world celebrates this month the one hundred 
and fiftieth anniversary of Mozart’s birth, and your Council, 
being desirous that the occasion should not pass entirely 
unnoticed by the Association, have done me the honour of 
asking me to read a paper to-day. 

Having regard to his splendid genius, his fertility as a 
composer, the share he took in the development of his Art, 
and the position he maintains in the repertory, it is perhaps 
surprising that Mozart has never before been the subj’ect of a 
paper at our meetings, though he once shared attention with 
Beethoven in a lecture discussing the treatment of the 
Rondo form. 

It cannot be denied that, though the extraordinary gifts 
possessed by Mozart are universally acknowledged, some 
differences exist in the opinions now held of his music, and for 
these an interesting explanation has been put forward by 
Mr. Statham. He points out that among the great composers 
Mozart occupies a position of special interest from two points 
of view. From the historical standpoint we see in him a link 
connecting the older and newer Schools of Composition, that 
is to say, the School which aimed first at a logical working-out 
in its productions, and the School which allows strivings after 

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46 Mozart's early Efforts in Opera. 

emotional expression to put considerations of purity and 
symmetry into the second place. Good music of course, 
whether old or new, must always possess both features in 
some degree. The difference between the two Schools largely 
consists in the two elements of interest having exchanged 
places in precedence. In Mozart’s music we find the two 
elements counterpoised, — both prominent — skilfully inter- 
mingled. But from the point of view of the art-critic, Mozart’s 
work presents an aspect which raises an interesting and by no 
means easy question. We see in the composer one who has 
never been excelled — perhaps hardly approached — in purity of 
design, in absolutely perfect balance of parts. And yet it is 
possible to ask whether this kind of perfection is the highest 
that Art can offer us, or whether the loftiest Art may not seek 
intenser expression and suggestiveness even at the expense of 
beauty of form ? Mr. Statham rightly observes that the 
answer which any man will give to this question will depend 
on his own mental constitution, and that he may even regard 
the matter in different lights at different times. This 
dependence on mental conditions is sufficient to account for 
the differences in the views entertained of Mozart’s work. 

Our composer, as you know, essayed with success almost 
every modern form of composition, but perhaps in none has 
his achievement been greater than in writing for the Stage. 
It may therefore be of interest to spend the time available 
to-day in an endeavour to trace the gradual development of his 
dramatic powers as exhibited in the early and unfamiliar 
works which preceded “ Idomeneo.” 

Mozart’s remarkable precocity is not less manifest in 
these early operas than in his other compositions of the same 
period. Such early facility in the acquisition of technique is 
very surprising, but it is not quite unparalleled. Our own 
Dr. Crotch was perhaps equally remarkable as a child, though 
his powers did not proportionately develop afterwards. What 
strikes Us most in Mozart’s mastery of technique is the ease 
with which he assimilated whatever he could not have 
possessed intuitively. Beethoven, as you will remember, 
acquired with great labour and pains such power in 
contrapuntal construction as he exhibits in the episodes which 
relieve, and by contrast heighten, the passion of his great 
works. In avowedly strict writing he shows to little 
advantage, and lacks that artistic balance of parts and that 
faculty of doing the most difficult things as if they were easy 
which Mozart exhibits. 

The creative impulse seems to have been awakened in the 
boy during his fifth year. His father, only half in earnest, 
had begun to teach him minuets and other simple pieces on 
the harpsichord. These he could very soon play quite 
correctly and strictly in time, and we next find him composing 

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Mozart's early Efforts in Opera. 


little pieces which his father committed to paper. I remember 
seeing in the Mozarteum at Salzburg an exercise book of the 
boy’s sister, which contains minuets and other short 
compositions, some used as lemons for the little boy, and 
Others his own productions. 

It was just about the time when these early pieces were 
written that Mozart’s father took his two precocious children 
into public life. A visit to Munich led to a more ambitious 
appearance in Vienna, where the Emperor Charles VI. took 
much interest in the little performers. Having tasted, through 
his children, the sweets of popularity, Mozart Senior could not 
immediately resign himself to Salzburg again, and the tour to 
Frankfort, Brussels, Paris and London followed. During 
this early tour, young Mozart did not attempt any strictly 
dramatic composition, but some of his settings and 
improvisations were admitted to show the advance of his 
technical education, his facility in the employment of forms, 
and even traces of that dramatic instinct which he later 
developed in so very remarkable a degree. 

The family party got home to Salzburg towards the end of 
1766, and there spent nearly a year in quiet work, both the 
children undergoing steady and thorough instruction. 

The Lenten season of 1767 witnessed the production at 
Salzburg of a so-called oratorio under the title of “The 
Obligation of the First and Greatest Commandment.’’ This 
work was arranged by Wieland, and consisted of three parts, 
the first only of which was set by Mozart, the two other parts 
being entrusted to less youthful composers. We are told 
that Wolfgang’s share in the work was due to the Archbishop’s 
incredulity as to his powers, and that the boy was shut up in 
solitude, with his share of the text to set. Of three airs for 
tenor, the third was utilised again by young Mozart in his first 
opera, “ La Finta Semplice,’’ which we will shortly proceed 
to consider. 

The intended union of King Ferdinand of Naples with the 
Archduchess Josepha, in the Autumn of 1767, put all Vienna 
into a fever of excitement, and the elder Mozart thought the 
occasion was an opportune one for bringing his children 
before the Viennese public again. Unfortunately the bride 
was carried off by an attack of small-pox, and this of course 
put an end to all festivities. Crowds fled before the epidemic, 
and the Mozarts among others, but flight did not save them, 
for both the children suffered severely. On their recovery and 
return to Vienna they had the good fortune to come into 
early contact with the new Emperor Joseph. His Majesty 
gave young Mozart his commands to compose an opera, and 
informed the manager, one Affligio, an unprincipled scoundrel 
who very properly ended his days in the galleys, of his desire 
for its production. As the members of the Opera Buffa were 

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4^ Mozart’s early Efforts in Opera. 

just then of greater excellence than the performers available 
for Opera Seria, it was resolved to provide a libretto for an 
opera buffa. Coltellini, the Court poet, an imitator of 
Metastasio, wrote the text," with the title of “ La Finta 
Semplice,” and the opera was to be ready by Easter. But 
before the score, extending to twenty-five numbers, was 
completed, intrigues were on foot to prevent the production 
of the work. The unworthiness of a boy of twelve to occupy 
the conductor’s desk, then generally filled by Gluck, was 
urged. Then the merit of the music was denied, and when 
the composer’s father had met this by obtaining the favour- 
able judgments of Hasse and Metastasio, the clique took refuge 
in the allegation that the music was not by young Mozart at 
all, but by his father. This was disproved, and the boy’s 
ability demonstrated, by his being required in the presence 
of a distinguished company to set with orchestral accom- 
paniment a song taken at random from Metastasio. But the 
hostility of the manager and the persistence of the intriguers 
proved too much even for the Emperor’s influence, and it 
was found impossible to bring the work at that time to a 

The score, in the young composer’s handwriting, is still in 
existence, and later judges have shared the opinion of those 
contemporary critics who considered it superior to most of 
the comic operas of that day. 

We have not time to consider in detail the various libretti 
which young Mozart subjected to musical treatment, but to 
realise what was put before this boy of twelve, let us glance 
at a brief outline of his earliest “ book.” A Hungarian 
officer and his man-servant are quartered upon two rich 
brothers, both unmarried, who have a charming sister, 
Giacinta. The officer and his servant, behind the brothers’ 
backs, are paying their addresses to Giacinta and her maid 
respectively. To further their ends, the two lovers bring the 
officer’s sister, Rosine, into the plot, she engaging to attract 
the attentions of both brothers. This, with the finta semplice, 
or feigned simplicity, of the title, she proceeds to do, and 
the complications which ensue form the main part of the 
action. In the end, the brothers are told that Giacinta and 
her maid have run off with money and jewels, and are 
persuaded to promise the hands of the two fair ones to any 
who may succeed in bringing them back. Needless to say, 
this is duly accomplished by their admirers, Rosine herself 
accepts the elder brother, and all ends happily. 

The remarkable talent for musical delineation of the 
several personages which is so conspicuous in Mozart's 
later operas, is manifested in this boyish production. The 
overture, or Sinfonia, has been judged to be of less merit 
than the rest of the work. It was originally a symphony. 

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Mozart's early Efforts in Opera. 

composed some months before, and converted to its new 
purpose by omitting the Minuet and by some changes in 
instrumentation. Of this overture I propose to let you hear 
the last movement. It is never very satisfactory to render 
orchestral pieces on the pianoforte, but even when so given 
you will recognise both the great spirit of the movement and 
the working-out which it contains. 

The part of the younger of the two brothers, Polidoro, is 
skilfully delineated. The singer for whom it was originally 
designed had a fine voice, but one which was effective only 
in slow movements, and Mozart has actually turned this 
limitation to account. The air in which Polidoro confesses 
himself subjugated by the adroit Rosine is that already 
spoken of as borrowed from the composer’s earlier oratorio. 
The orchestral accompaniment with which it is furnished is 
very remarkable, both wind and strings being employed with 
great judgment. It is to be feared that this cannot be 
conveyed to you by my pianoforte arrangement, but the grace 
of both melody and harmony must be apparent. 

Taking this opera as a whole, the adroitness with which 
the composer employs his resources, and the symmetry 
which he manages to preserve, are perhaps more conspicuous 
than his originality of invention, but to say the least of it 
“ La Finta Semplice ” was a work of glorious promise. 

If this opera was for the time denied a hearing, Mozart soon 
found an opportunity of exhibiting his powers in another 
work. The origin of his second libretto is rather curious. 
Some fifteen or sixteen years before, J. J. Rousseau had 
embodied his views on stage music in an intermezzo, 
“ Le Devin du Village,” which, though suggested to him by 
Italian works of the Opera Buffa School, showed very marked 
originality and achieved the greatest success. A sort of 
parody of this piece was written and produced in Paris in 
1753 by the celebrated actress, Madame Favart, to whose 
exertions its success was due. Mozart’s version was adapted 
from the French parodjf by Weiskern, and consists of one 
long dialogue in German, interspersed with musical pieces. 
The latter are fifteen in number, three being duets, one a 
trio, and the rest solos. The German text was certainly 
inferior in merit to the French original, but Mozart, who 
in “ La Finta Semplice ” had employed the Italian style, 
showed in this German pastoral that he had the German 
style and colouring at command. The work, which was 
called “ Bastien and Bastienne,” was produced at a private 
theatre. The score is very simple and devoid of any 
elaborate working-out, but there are still many traces of the 
composer’s dramatic aptitude. Jahn, in his monumental 
biography, p»oints out as noteworthy that these two earliest 
dramatic efforts of the youthful composer should touch the 


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50 Mozart's early Efforts in Opera, 

two extremes which it was to be his achievement to bring 
together. “ Bastien and Bastienne” was revived in 1893 
by the students of the Royal College of Music. Its 
overture, or intrada, offers a remarkable example of musical 
coincidence, the subject being almost identical with the 
principal theme of the opening movement of Beethoven’s 
Third Symphony, written some thirty-five years later. 

It may be observed that the young composer, after 
introducing his subject in the tonic and then in the dominant, 
brings it in towards the end in the subdominant, and when 
the overture finally closes in the tonic, he produces, with a 
want of his usual adroitness, a false impression of key, the 
ear refusing to believe that we are back into the principal 
key and that the movement is really at an end. 

The year 1769 was mostly spent in study at Salzburg, but 
while there young Mozart had the satisfaction of seeing his 
“ Finta Semplice " produced by order of the Archbishop. 

Early in December, 1769, the Mozarts, father and son, set 
out for Italy. In Milan they found a sympathetic friend 
in Count Firmian, the Governor- General of Lombardy, and 
as a result of their intercourse he commissioned young 
Mozart to write an opera for the following season. After 
spending the summer in the south of Italy, the Mozarts 
returned to Milan in October, and Wolfgang set to work in 
earnest upon the new opera. This was to be an opera seria, 
from Racine, in three acts, entitled “ Mitridate, Rd di Ponto.” 
The extreme youth of the composer and his German 
nationality aroused the prejudices of some before the 
production ; but when this took place, on December 26, 
1770, the highest hopes of the Mozarts were realised. The 
work, which was performed no less than twenty times, 
consisted of overture, some twenty-two solos, a duet, and the 
concluding quintet, though why the last-named should be 
called a quintet is not clear, the voice-parts being only three 
in number, two of them doubled. The most noteworthy air 
in the opera is Aspasia’s song “ Nel sen mi palpita,” which 
was published in England half-a-century ago, and enjoyed 
some popularity here. 

The success of “ Mitridate” procured its composer the 
commission for another opera, “ Lucio Silla,” produced, also 
in Milan, exactly two years later. 

In the meantime a theatrical serenata, “ Ascanio in Alba,” 
and an allegorical piece from Metastasio, “ II Sogno di 
Scipione,” borrowed from the “ Somnium Scipionis” of 
Cicero, had proceeded from his pen. The former was 
written against time and in circumstances of great difficulty. 
One violinist occupied the room above that in which Mozart 
worked, and a second the room below. Next door was a 
singing-master, and opposite lived an oboe player. But 

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Mozart's early Efforts in Opera. 51 

Wolfgang made light of these drawbacks. “ It is capital for 
composing,” he said, “ it gives one new ideas." 

“ Ascanio,” produced in 1771, was a festival piece, 
prepared in honour of the Archduke Ferdinand’s wedding. 
It contains five characters, and the plot is mythological. 
The overture is noteworthy, and shows our composer 
venturing on some originality of form. The first movement 
is an animated Allegro, while the second, Andante grazioso, 
is a dance in which the Graces disport themselves. Instead 
of the usual third movement we find a chorus of Nymphs 
and Graces introduced, the orchestra retaining the ordinary 
character of a third movement, while the vocal parts supply 
the harmonies somewhat as wind instruments might do, but 
with more freedom. This chorus much resembles the finale 
included in our programme to-day. In my pianoforte 
arrangement, it has been attempted to convey some idea of 
the important share assigned to the strings. 

But before hearing this, we will have the quaint dance 
movement played. 

It was “ Ascanio in Alba” which led so competent a judge 
as Hasse to predict the composer’s future renown, Jahn 
conjectures that it must have been in the choruses that 
Hasse detected the master’s hand, as the solos are not remark- 
able, and the work as a whole is surpassed in originality by 
some even of its predecessors. 

“ II Sogno di Scipione,” or “ The Dream of the Younger 
Scipio,” which has already been mentioned, was also a festival 
piece, but bears evident marks of haste, and shows a lack of 
invention very unusual in Mozart. 

But the date for the production of “ Lucio Silla ” was 
approaching, and this work, on a classical Roman subject, 
captivated the Milanese no less than “ Mitridate” had done. 
Like it, too, it conformed strictly to the rules of the opera 
seria of the eighteenth century, most of the numbers being 
solos, and the composer was manifestly cramped by the 
stringent conventions in force. One of the airs towards the 
end of the work had a great vogue in its day. It has been 
criticised as out of accordance with the character and situa- 
tion of the personage to whom it is assigned, a proscribed 
senator taking leave of his betrothed, but the perfect grace 
and beauty of the setting entitle it to recognition apart from 
the opera, as you will perceive. 

Having regard to the success achieved in Milan, it can 
hardly be doubted that the Mozarts’ return to Salzburg in 
the following Spring was due to no lack of encouragement 
in Italy, but to the refusal of longer leave of absence by the 
elder Mozart’s patron. 

Instrumental and church music occupied our composer for 
some time after his return, and the next opera commission 
E 2 

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Mozart's early Efforts in Opera. 

which we hear of reached him from Munich, where a comic 
opera was desired for the Carnival of 1775. Having succeeded 
in obtaining leave of absence from the Archbishop, the father 
and son started for Munich on December 6, 1774, and 
finding there that the vocal and instrumental resources were 
considerable, young Mozart set himself to utilise them on a 
scale not then usual in comic opera. The outcome of his 
labours was “ La Finta Giardiniera.” This three-act opera 
was produced originally in Italian, and afterwards, under the 
supervision of Mozart’s father, in German. The subject had 
been treated operatically before by Piccinni, whose version 
was given in Vienna during the same year. I have not 
seen a copy of the original Italian text, and the selections 
to-day will be given in a new English version. “ La Finta 
Giardiniera,” or “ The Pretended Lady Gardener,” is con- 
cerned with the doings of a noble lady whose betrothed, 
having wounded her in a transport of jealousy, and believing 
her fatally injured, takes to flight. Accompanied by a man- 
servant, the lady sets out in disguise to seek him, and the 
pair, under assumed names, take service as gardeners in the 
very house where the fugitive is beginning to form a new 
attachment. The complications which ensue may readily be 

It may be said at once that “ La Finta Giardiniera ” is a 
great advance upon its predecessors in three important respects 
— characterization, originality of themes, and constructive 
skill. The musical individualization of the personages is 
quite remarkable, and the treatment of the part of the lady 
masquerading as a garden girl is worthy of Mozart’s latest 
years. Early in the piece occurs a sprightly Rondo, in which 
the disguised lady defends her sex against the men, and an 
arrangement of this is included in our programme. 

The ensembles are the numbers of greatest merit in the 
score, the finales of the first and second acts being especially 
noteworthy. Some of the selections to-day cannot be given 
in their entirety. Partly to save time, and partly because 
some passages lose all significance off the stage, it has been 
necessary to make certain omissions. The orchestration of 
the “ Giardiniera ” is truly remarkable, and the composer 
makes the happiest use of the wind, the peculiarities of the 
oboe, bassoon and horns being turned to good account. The 
instrumental parts are no mere accompaniment, supporting 
the voices and filling up the pauses. They form an essential 
in the whole artistic structure, and show our composer to 
have advanced much farther along the road which he trod 
with such success. 

The “ Giardiniera ” was not the only opera which Mozart 
gave to the world in 1775. He showed his versatility in a 
work of an almost diametrically opposite type, the festival 

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Mozart's early Efforts in Opera. 


opera known as “ II Re Pastore,” or “ The Shepherd King,” 
of which the “book” was by Metastasio. The poem had 
been written in 1751, and had already been set to music by 
Bonno. Mozart’s score shows no less invention and resource 
than are seen in the “ Giardiniera,” but the conventional 
restrictions of this classic piece left him much less scope. 
The rightful heir to the throne of Sidon has been brought up 
secretly as a shepherd, and when Alexander of Macedon puts 
the crown within his reach, he refuses to accept it if it is to 
involve breaking his faith with the maiden of his early choice. 
In the end all difficulties are overcome. The air in which the 
shepherd youth declares his unalterable fidelity is in rondo 
form, with two interludes and a coda, and has a violin 
obbligato part in the accompaniment. When published in 
Paris in a French version it met with great acceptance there. 
The part of the shepherd youth was assigned by Mozart 
himself to a lady, so that there is good warrant for asking a 
lady to sing the rondo to-day. 

The finale is given to-day with rather more voices than in 
the score, but without repetition of the four-part tutti, and 
with omission of the solo passages. 

The next work which calls for notice is “ Zaide,” described 
as a serious operetta, in two acts, on a Turkish .subject. It 
was written some time before the end of 1780, and the 
librettist, Schactner, seems to have been indebted to a French 
source for his ideas. Here again the concerted numbers are 
the more noteworthy. One feature in the work must not pass 
without mention. The original libretto was in German, and 
the composer employed spoken dialogue to be delivered with 
a set musical accompaniment. This combination, which is 
what is strictly and properly termed Melodrama, had been 
attempted before by other composers — notably by Rousseau, 
the originality of whose views on dramatic music is well 
known — and Beethoven and Weber have left us examples 
of it. But there is the great drawback that spoken dialogue 
under these restrictions is deprived of much effectiveness 
by losing its continuity, and the difficulties of delivery are 
serious. Mozart evidently did not consider the result 
satisfactory, for he never resorted to the device again. 

The score of “ Zaide ” was not completed by the composer, 
the overture a.nd finale being wanting. These were afterwards 
added by Councillor Andre, who acquired a large number 
of Mozart's manuscripts after his death, and it has been 
suggested that Andre utilised in this way some of the material 
which came into his possession. “ Za'ide ” was revived at 
Frankfort in 1866, an occasion of interest to the student, but 
the production of Mozart’s “ Seraglio,” which has a similar 
subject, no doubt helped to consign this earlier work to 
oblivion. The selections to-day are the air which the heroine 

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Mozart's early Efforts m Opera. 

sings on finding the hero asleep, and the brisk finale, the 
actual authorship of the latter, as stated, remaining in some 

Mozart’s invention was so fertile that he was not content 
with writing operas of his own and a large number of songs 
for separate performance, but he actually obliged other 
composers by writing pieces to be introduced into their operas. 
It is not surprising that some of these have survived long 
after the circumstances of their first production have been 

“ Zai'de,” as we have seen, was never completed in the 
composer’s lifetime, and he has left at least two other operas 
in a still more unfinished state. One of these, “ L’ Oca del 
Cairo," was sketched out by Varesco, who wrote the libretto 
of the first act in full. Mozart set to work upon it with 
diligence, and we find him writing to his father of his progress, 
and expressing his satisfaction with certain numbers. But 
the plot was extravagant and weak. The goose mentioned 
in the title is an artificial bird, large enough to conceal a man, 
which is to be employed in gaining a boastful wager. As 
Mozart proceeded with his work, he appears to have seen 
more and more objection to this farcical expedient, and as 
the librettist refused to modify the plot, the score was 
ultimately laid aside. The music was then lost sight of until 
the composer’s widow gathered together his MSS., a large 
collection of which passed by purchase into the possession of 
Andre. So lately as i86i a music publisher at Ofienbach, 
who was one of the heirs of the purchaser, published the 
unfinished score. Thereupon M. Victor Wilder, of the 
Fantaisies Parisiennes Theatre in Paris, resolved to adapt 
the work for production. He divided the one act into two, 
and, as “ L’ Oca ’’ had neither overture nor introduction, he 
borrowed the overture and introductory quartet from 
Mozart’s other unfinished opera, “ Lo Sposo Deluso," and 
added two other numbers from the composer’s scattered 
pieces. The score contains a quartet very ingeniously 
constituted of two pairs of lovers who converse from afar, 
but it is too involved for reproduction here. The very short 
quartet which will be given is taken from the finale. 

Mozart’s music to Von Gebler’s Egyptian drama, “ King 
Thames,’’ does not come strictly within the scope of this 
paper, and is moreover comparatively familiar, but it may be 
pointed out that the choruses show important development 
and impetus in a new direction. Mozart’s settings of these 
choruses form very fine hymns, written, however, not for 
the church, where, by-the-way, their music is constantly 
employed, but for the stage. For the very reason that 
Mozart felt himself free from the fetters of convention, he 
has produced in these hymns music of a bolder and nobler 

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Mozart’s early Efforts in Opera. 

type than we find in his compositions of that date avowedly 
for the church, and the rich and massive effects which he 
has obtained in treating chorus and full orchestra together 
have formed a lesson by which later composers have profited. 
The voice-parts are quite complete and independent in 
themselves, and yet are united with a no less complete and 
independent orchestra. 

The year after the production of the “ King Thames ” 
music we find Mozart engaged on the classic subject of 
“ Idomeneo,’’ and here he embarks on a new career. The 
operas of which “ Idomeneo ” was the first fall into a 
different category. They are works of greater maturity, 
works for the production of which the composer had been 
gradually qualifying himself by the discipline and experience 
of his earlier labours. With these later works we are not 
concerned this afternoon. The operas we have been 
considering led up to them, and the selections given are of 
course not presented as products of the composer’s ripened 
genius. They are rather to be regarded as milestones along 
the road which led to his position of assured supremacy. 
At the same time, even these rarely fail to exhibit that true 
balance between beauty of form and beauty of expression so 
characteristic of Mozart, and the equally important balance 
preserved between the vocal and instrumental forces. 

Beethoven has left us only a solitary opera, and even in 
that the nice balance of parts is not invariably preserved. 
As to the operatic work produced in present-day Germany, 
much of it may fairly be described as orchestral composition 
with vocal explanatory comments. Apropos of this School, 
we may remember that Mozart complains in his letters that, 
while verse is necessary in an operatic libretto, the rhyme (in 
the “ books ” supplied to him) was a drawback. It is curious 
to compare this with Wagner’s inconsistency. He often 
makes light of the claims of rhythm in his music, 
while emphasising the rhythm in his words by employing 
a jingle. 

In estimating Mozart two circumstances must never be 
forgotten, the difficulties under which most of his works were 
produced and his early death. Had Beethoven, for instance, 
passed away at the same early age, the works which he 
produced before his thirty-sixth birthday would hardly have 
given him his present position on the roll of fame. 

Mozart’s grand achievement was the blending of Italian 
melody with German scientific structure, with a result so 
complete and apparently spontaneous that all sense of 
nationality is lost, as in the highest Art it should be. My 
aim to-day has been to convey some idea of the early and 
unfamiliar stages through which that achievement in the 
department of Opera was reached. 

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5 & Mozart's early Efforts in Opera. 

The following were the illustrations to the Paper : — 

Sinfonia (last movement), La Finta Semplice (played on 
the pianoforte by Miss Elsie Davies) ; Aria, “ Cosa ha mai la 
donna,” La Finta Semplice (Mr. Hamilton Haysman) ; 
“ Dance of Nymphs and Graces,” Ascanio in Alba (played 
on the pianoforte by Miss Elsie Davies) ; Finale (Act I.), 
“ Dite pih amabile,” Ascanio in Alba (the Choru^ ; Aria, 
“ Pupille Amate,” Lucio Silla (Miss Elsie Davies) ; Cavatina, 
“ We Maidens suffer ” (“ Wir MSdchen sind ”), La Finta 
Giardiniera (Miss Elsie Davies) ; Chorus (from Finale, 
Act I.), “ O, how perplexing!” (“ Welche Verwirrung ”), 
La Finta Giardiniera (the Choru^ ; Finale (Act III.), “ Love 
and Constancy ” (“ Lieb’ und Treue ”), La Finta Giardi- 
niera (the Chorus) ; Rondo (with Violin Obbligato), 
“ L’amero, saro costante,” II Pastore (Miss M. Robinson; 
violin. Miss Helen Styles) ; Finale, “ Viva 1’ invitto duce ! ” 
II RS Pastore (the Chorus) ; Aria, “ Deh, riposa,” Zaide 
(Miss M. Robinson) ; Finale, ” Natura in fede," Zaide (the 
Chorus) ; Quartetto, “Mentre lo scemo,” L’ Oca del Cairo 
(Miss Elsie Davies, Mrs. Francis Cope, Mr. Haysman, and 
Mr. T. C. Andrew). 


The Chairman. — Ladies and Gentlemen, our first privilege 
is to thank Mr. Edgar for his admirable and very interesting 
Paper, and also to thank the ladies and gentlemen who have 
contributed to the success of that Paper by the illustrations. 
I think one thing must have struck us very emphatically, 
and that is, that even in the very earliest work of Mozart 
there is always the Mozart touch. With most precocious 
geniuses who have lived in the world of music — Crotch was 
mentioned, and we must supplement that by Hook and Wesley 
the elder — they did things at very early ages : they composed 
oratorios, but they were only notes that anyone might have 
written ; but with Mozart we find from the very beginning 
there is always some very interesting touch. When he was 
in London at eight years of age he published a series of sonatas 
for violin and harpsichord which he dedicated to the Queen, 
and although they are not very remarkable efforts of genius, 
yet they have certain touches which no one else could imitate. 
So also in that little anthem which is now in the British 
Museum, there are two or three chords which you do not find 
common at that time. And again, let us remember that all 

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Mozart's early Efforts in Opera. 57 

those illustrations, commencing with the first movement from 
“ La FintaSemplice” down to the last from “L’Oca del Cairo," 
were written within the space of fifteen years — a very short 
period. It is a very wonderful thing ; and one is sometimes 
inclined to believe it possible that Providence meant his life 
to be short, and that he did, perhaps, all he ever would have 
done, and that if he had lived longer he would not have 
surpassed what he had already accomplished. But we must 
not forget that Mozart could write very substantial music. 
It is very difficult to distinguish between the music of his 
Operas and that of his Masses ; I think the Operas are 
generally better music than the Masses. But when the spirit 
moved him he could rise to a much higher level, as we see in 
the Litany containing the magnificent choral fugue “ Pignus 
futurae,” and again in the “ Requiem.” There is one thing 
that strikes me, and I am sure our lecturer will agree with 
me, that in all he did he had a tremendous dramatic instinct. 
I think it would be quite possible to take one of his operas 
and find out from the score what the action ought to be 
on the stage. It has always struck me so when reading a 
Mozart opera. I have always thought, Why should people 
bother about what was to be done on the stage ? Mozart 
indicates that in the music. We might talk for a month 
about Mozart ; and I am delighted to think that there is just 
now quite a little wave of feeling passing over Europe that 
there was a genius who did mighty things. On the Continent 
the Mozart revival is becoming ver)' prominent ; and though 
it would be very undesirable that one great master should 
wipe out the memory of other great masters who preceded or 
followed him, it is desirable that we should not forget we had 
a great master in the last quarter of the i8th century. 

(The votes of thanks were passed unanimously.) 

Mr. Southgate. — In the absence of any other member 
rising to make some remarks upon the delightful Paper we 
have heard, and the still more exquisite music we have listened 
to, I cannot but say how much we are indebted to Mr. Edgar 
for the treat he has given us. Most of us know Mozart’s 
later works ; it seems that some have not yet learned to love 
them. But of his earlier works very little indeed is known. 
The music given to-day must have been a revelation to many 
of us. We cannot but recognize in it the sweet, delicate 
melodious Mozart, even in the very first example that was 
given. And we cannot fail to recognize the delightful 
accompaniments that are so characteristic of this composer. 
Of course in the orchestra they would have sounded still more 
charming. But Mozart is distinguished for his accom- 
paniments ; I have sometimes said one would be willing 

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Mozart’s early Efforts in Opera. 

to listen to the music of the “ Nozze di Figaro ” or “ Don 
Giovanni,” without any action at all, simply for the sake of 
hearing the interesting accompaniments. One sees that in 
these earlier works there is still the same flow of independent 
ideas supporting the vocal music. I am sorry Mr. Edgar did 
not go a little farther down this early list and tell us something 
more about “ Thamos, King of Egypt.” He did mention those 
remarkable numbers “ Splendente te, Deus” and “ Ne pulvis.” 
It is extraordinary that they should have been written for 
the stage. Some of you may have heard them in an organ 
arrangement or in church ; but I take it, it was quite a new 
departure in Opera, and I wish we could have heard some- 
thing more about this. May I say also how very much we 
are indebted to Mr. Edgar for the pains he must have taken 
in adapting these works from the score and arranging them for 
the pianoforte. For a busy man it is a considerable task; and 
that I think we owe him gratitude for. We are glad at this 
one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of Mozart’s birth to 
observe that he is not forgotten. There is a sort of wave of 
old feeling coming over Germany. There have been many 
Mozart performances, and I think there will be some more. 
We of the Musical Association have done our share in 
bringing before an audience, which has had no opportunity of 
hearing them, these long forgotten pieces. They have shown 
us what a genius Mozart was even as a boy — for remember 
that nearly all these pieces that you have heard were 
composed while the composer was still in his teens. 

A Lady. — I should like to ask if I am right in thinking 
that “ L’ Oca del Cairo ” was once produced in London. 

The Chairman. — You are quite right; it was produced at 
Covent Garden ; Trebelli sang in it. ' 

Mr. Edgar. — I am very much obliged to you, and for the kind 
words said by Dr. Cummings and Mr. Southgate and the 
vote of thanks. I must express my own acknowledgments 
to the ladies and gentlemen who have furnished the 
illustrations : I really feel that they have furnished the meat 
for this banquet, while my contribution has been only the 

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February 19, 1906. 

A. H. D. PRENDERGAST, Esq., M.A., Vice-President, 
In the Chair. 


By Edward J. Dent, M.A., Mus.B., 

Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. 

When I last had the honour of reading a paper before this 
Association, I tried to show you how Alessandro Scarlatti 
gathered up the results of all the musical experiments which 
Italian composers had made during the seventeenth century, 
and wove these various threads into that smooth and supple 
texture which formed the foundation of what we call classical 
music. He was of course not alone in the accomplishment 
of this great task, but we may certainly regard him as by 
far the most important and the most influential of the 
musicians who were at work upon it. Historians have 
sometimes refused to accept him as the real founder of the 
Neapolitan School of the eighteenth century. Certainly 
there were composers and teachers at Naples before 
Alessandro Scarlatti, but it was not until Scarlatti had 
established himself there that Naples became the musical 
centre of Italy and therefore of Europe, Nevertheless, I do 
not wish to maintain that it was the spirit of Scarlatti which 
animated the teaching of that school of composition, 
although the Neapolitans always regarded him as their 
figurehead ; indeed I shall have occasion to point out to you 
this afternoon how soon his immediate influence was 
forgotten. But the generation that followed him did include 
a few composers whose work was inspired by ideals almost 
as lofty as his ; and of these the man who has most claims 
on our respect is Leonardo Leo. 

The birth and parentage of Leonardo Leo have been the 
subject of some dispute among musical historians. The 

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Leonardo Leo. 

latest authority on the subject is Cavaliere Giacomo Leo, a 
descendant of the composer’s brother, who not only has 
made very careful researches at Naples and elsewhere, but 
is also in possession of family traditions to which we may 
justly attach considerable authority. According to Cav. 
Giacomo Leo, the composer was born on August 5, 1694, 
at S. Vito degli Sclavi, now called S. Vito degli Normanni, 
in the province of Lecce. There were several families 
of the name of Leo at S. Vito, some being known as 
Leo and others as de Leo ; our composer’s father was 
Leonardo de Leo, and he appears to have been a small 
proprietor in very humble circumstances. He had three 
sons; the youngest, born two months after his death, 
received the name of Leonardo, in memory of his father, 
Oronzo, after an ancestor whose name is still perpetuated in 
the Leo family, and Salvatore, because he came into the 
world poor like the Saviour of mankind. His education was 
undertaken by the monks of a neighbouring Dominican 
monastery. They soon discovered his musical talent, and 
persuaded his mother and uncles to send him to the 
Conservatorio della Pieta de’ Turchini at Naples. The 
Neapolitan Conservatori, as their name implies, were originally 
not schools of music, but orphanages, in which children 
without means were received between the ages of seven and 
fifteen. Leonardo Leo entered the Conservatorio in 1703 at 
the age of nine, and remained there until the age of twenty- 
one. This account of Leo’s early years does not agree with 
that given by Francesco Florimo in his history of the 
Neapolitan School of music, which was the principal authority 
for the article in the first edition of Grove’s “ Dictionary of 
Music and Musicians.” The confusion of dates is due to 
the fact that there was another Leonardo Leo, son of one 
Corrado Leo, and apparently cousin of the composer ; he 
established himself at Naples in 1709, in a house which was 
the property of the Conservatorio de’ Turchini, married, and 
had a son who was eventually admitted to the Conservatorio 
as a student. For a detailed discussion of the documents 
relating to these two Leonardo Leos, and the establishment 
of their separate identities, I must refer you to the published 
works of Cav. Giacomo Leo.* I shall not make any further 
reference to Leonardo Leo the son of Corrado Leo, and 
henceforward shall speak of the composer simply as Leo. 

It has generally been supposed that Leo was a pupil of 
Alessandro Scarlatti at Naples and of Giuseppe Ottavio 
Pitoni at Rome. There can of course be no doubt that he 
was influenced by the work of Scarlatti, and his sacred music 

♦ G. Leo — Leonardo Leo, musicista del secolo xviii. e le sue opere 
musicali, Naples, 1905. Leonardo Leo e il suo omonimo, Naples, 1901 
S. Vito de’ Normanni, Naples, 1904. 

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Leonardo Leo. 


bears a decided affinity to that of Pitoni ; but it is impossible 
that he could have gone to Rome for tuition under Pitoni 
whilst a student at a Neapolitan Conservatorio, dependent on 
the charity of the institution for his board and lodging. 
Moreover, Alessandro Scarlatti, as I have shown elsewhere, 
was absent from Naples from 1702 to the end of 1708, and 
on his return there was teaching at a Conservatorio other 
than that in which Leo was receiving instruction. His 
actual teachers were Francesco Provenzale, and Nicola Fago, 
known as II Tarentino, a man of no fame as a composer but 
worthy of remembrance as an excellent teacher. 

Of his first important composition, a sacred drama entitled 
“ L’ infedelta abbattuta," neither the score nor the libretto 
has survived. It was performed by the students of the 
Conservatorio in 1712 and apparently met with success, as it 
was repeated by the command of the Viceroy at the royal 
palace. Two years later he produced his first secular opera, 
“ Pisistrato,” at the Teatro di San Bartolomeo. “This new 
opera,” says a contemporary, “ was much applauded and 
admired, having been set to music by the young Leonardo 
Leo, and it is the first opera that he has written.” The 
score, which was unknown to Florimo, is at Montecassino, 
and, as we should naturally expect, shows the young composer 
imitating the style of Scarlatti. The imitation is not free 
from awkwardness, and the phraseology is modelled rather on 
Scarlatti’s earlier work (in the manner of “ Eraclea,” 1700) 
than on his new style introduced after his return to Naples 
in 1708. The rhythmical mannerisms of the later generation 
do not appear at all, and there is curiously little florid 
vocalization. The following year, his minority being at an 
end, he was made second master at the Pieta de’ Turchini, 
and also obtained the appointment of organist at the Cathedral. 
In 1716 he became supernumerary organist of the royal 
chapel, and in 1717, when Alessandro Scarlatti left Naples 
again and all his subordinates at the royal chapel received 
some sort of promotion, Leo became organist. He also held 
the directorship of the music at a church belonging to some 
Spanish nuns. His next opera, “ Sofonisba,” was produced 
in 1718, and this work, following upon two serenatas com- 
posed for Court functions, established Leo’s reputation in 
Naples as a composer for the stage. His early career as a 
composer of opera is, however, difficult to trace, since the 
scores of most of his operas of this period have disappeared. 
No doubt many of them could be to some extent recon- 
structed, since several libretti exist, and detached airs by 
Leo are scattered over all the principal libraries ; but the 
cataloguing and arranging of them is a labour requiring more 
time and patience than I have yet been able to devote to it. 
It is however a task that ought to be carried out, since it will 

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Leonardo Leo. 

materially assist historians of music in tracing the successive 
stages of development of the sonata form. 

It is in 1722 that we first hear of Leo as a composer of 
comic opera, a branch of musical art in which he is one of the 
most important figures of the eighteenth century. It will be 
remembered that for many years it had been considered 
necessary to add comic scenes to all operas by outside 
composers which appeared on the Neapolitan stage. Handel’s 
“ Agrippina ” was one of those “ improved ” in this way. 
Gasparini’s opera “ Tamerlano,” produced at Venice in 1710, 
was given at Naples in 1722 under the name of “ Bajazette,” 
and for this performance comic intermezzi were written by 
one Bernardo Sabdumene, and set to music by Leo. It is 
possible, however, that Leo had already done work of the 
same kind in 1717, when he made additions (of what kind 
is not known) to the opera “ Sesostri,” also by Gasparini. 
In 1723 Leo produced his first entire comic opera, “ La mpeca 
scoperta ” (“ L’ imbroglio scoperto ”). As is obvious from the 
title, this is in Neapolitan dialect, and was produced at the 
Teatro dei Fiorentini. The public, it is recorded, were very 
much pleased both with the music of the celebrated Leonardo 
Leo, organist of the chapel royal, and with the singers who 
took part in it. 

It is not necessary to mention here all the operas of Leo in 
turn. There is a complete bibliography of them both in 
Cavaliere Leo’s biography, and in the new edition of Grove’s 
Dictionary. It will be more convenient merely to relate the 
principal events of the composer’s life, and then proceed to a 
critical survey of his music. 

On the death of Alessandro Scarlatti in 1725, Leo became 
first organist of the chapel royal. It was probably at this 
time that he became master at the Conservatorio di S. Onofrio. 
In 1732 he succeeded Vinci as Pro-vice-maestro of the chapel 
royal, and in this capacity produced his two celebrated 
oratorios “La Morte di Abele” and “Sant’ Elena al Calvario.” 
The most celebrated of all his serious operas, “ Demofoonte,” 
appeared in 1735 ; “ Farnace ” (1737) has a certain interest as 
being the last opera given at the old Teatro di S. Bartolomeo. 
This theatre, which had seen all Scarlatti’s Neapolitan 
triumphs, was in this year converted into a church, being 
superseded as court theatre by the newly-built San Carlo. 
In 1738 Leo was engaged on another opera, “ Demetrio,’’ but 
interrupted it to compose a sort of serenata in honour of the 
marriage of Charles III. He was thus unable to finish 
“ Demetrio ” by the time required, although he was confined 
to his house and a guard of soldiers placed opposite in order 
to ensure his working. The opera was finished by other 
composers, and Leo had to content himself with only a 
portion of the total sum paid for the opera. The celebrated 

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Leonardo Leo. 63 

“ Miserere ” and the best of all his comic operas, “ Amor vuol 
sofferenze,” date from 1739. The following year Leo paid 
short visits to Turin and Milan; in 1741 he succeeded his old 
teacher Nicola Fago as first master at the Pieta de’ Turchini. 
He died in 1744 from apoplexy, while seated at his 
harpsichord. Florimo, who always had an eye for an anecdote, 
stated that he was engaged at the moment on the composition 
of the opera “ La finta Frascatana.” This is obviously 
untrue, as the opera in question was produced five years 

Leo’s comf)ositions fall into three principal divisions : 
serious opera, comic opera, and sacred music. Besides these, 
there is a small amount of instrumental music, which makes 
up for its deficiency in quantity by its excellence in quality. 
The concerto for four violins is too well known to need further 
remark : there are also six violoncello concertos composed in 
1737 and 1738 which deserve the highest praise. 

The disappearance of many of Leo’s scores makes it 
impossible to offer an adequate judgment on him as a com- 
poser of serious opera. “ Demofoonte,” “ Giro Riconosciuto,” 
and “ L’ Olimpiade ” appear to have been regarded as his 
masterpieces in this line. Piccinni considered the air 
“ Misero pargoletto,” in “ Demofoonte,” to be a model of 
dramatic expression ; it is certainly one of the most beautiful 
specimens of the period. But we are obliged to confess that 
for poignancy and vividness of expression Alessandro Scarlatti 
remained unsurpassed by any of the generation that followed 
him. The contribution of Leo and his contemporaries to the 
history of music does not consist in an advance in poetic 
expression ; the advance which they made was more purely 
technical, and its importance is therefore easily underrated. 
In serious opera Leo reminds us rather of Cherubini. Severe, 
dignified, and cold, he is a composer whom all can admire, but 
whom only those will love who have in their own souls that 
fiery enthusiasm which kindles all that it meets. 

In the department of comic opera Leo holds a very 
important place. It may be well to recapitulate here the 
main outlines of the history of opera buffa. The essential 
thing to remember is that the opera buffa did not grow out 
of the intermezzo, as so many writers have been led to 
suppose. The intermezzo, as I have pointed out elsewhere, is 
derived originally from the old Itdian comedy of masks. 
The Venetian composers who adapted to popular needs the 
first experimental ideas of the literary Florentines, introduced 
comic characters into their operas, not indeed with the tradi- 
tional masks of Arlecchino and Brighella, but with parts 
in the development of the drama very similar to those taken 
on the popular stage by those two immortal types of domestic 
servants. In Alessandro Scarlatti’s early operas, the comic 

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Leonardo Leo. 

characters — sometimes one, sometimes two— appear at any 
time in the play, generally at the most inopportune moments. 
Later they settle down into the conventional soprano and 
bass, and occupy the concluding scenes of the first two acts 
and the penultimate scene of the third. Their relation to the 
comedy of masks is well seen in Scarlatti’s “ Caduta dei 
Decemviri,” where Flacco, the comic servant of Appius 
Claudius, informs us that he is a native of Bologna, and his 
companion Servilia, nurse to Virginia, announces herself as a 
Bergamask. There are indeed several scenes of this kind in 
various operas where the comic bass masquerades as the 
Dottor Graziano, and the soprano appears as a sort of female 
counterpart of Brighella. Already before Scarlatti’s death 
these comic scenes had come to be regarded as detachable and 
interchangeable between one opera and another ; and in Leo’s 
time they had become definite intermezzi, of that type of 
which “ La Serva Padrona ” is the classical example. 

The opera buff a or commedia per musica, however, is not 
on this small scale, but is a full-blown three-act opera. 
Dr. Hugo Goldschmidt has traced the Roman comic operas of 
the seventeenth century to a Spanish origin ; this would account 
for their taking root easily in N aples at a later date. Scarlatti’s 
early operas include one or two which belong more or less to 
the Roman type : “ Dal Male il Bene ” is a good example. 
These, however, were in pure Italian, and preserved the 
courtly Spanish character, though some interesting examples 
of dialect opera were produced at Rome, and are discussed 
in detail by Dr. Goldschmidt’s “ Studien zur Geschichte der 
italienischen Oper im 17. Jahrhundert.” The essentially 
Neapolitan comic opera arose in 1709, and was evidently 
derived from the half-serious, half-comic opera of Scarlatti’s 
early years ; “ La Rosaura,” and “ II Figlio delle Selve,” 

are other examples. Since the first known Neapolitan 
dialect opera was produced with the apologies of the 
management, apparently as a stop-gap, it seems likely that 
it was sung mainly in dialect because there was no time to 
turn the rough draft into literary Italian. We know that 
with even so classical an author as Metastasio, the turning 
the play into polished literary Italian was a very important 
part of his method, according to his own description. The 
experiment being successful, it naturally was repeated, and 
so a definite style grew up, depending for its interest on the 
lively presentation of popular local types, and later introducing 
an occasional parody of the baroque style of opera seria. In 
the early comic operas all the characters talk Neapolitan 
except those who are held up to ridicule as Romans or North 
Italians ; in the same way we find the Florentine’s 
pedantically pure Italian ridiculed in the Venetian comedies 
of Goldoni. This, however, was not kept up for very long ; 

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Leonardo Leo. 


no doubt it was not always possible to secure the services of 
a sufficient number of good Neapolitan singers, and the later 
type of comic opera does not present us with more than 
four or five characters who speak the dialect. Scarlatti’s one 
attempt at comic opera, it will be remembered, is in Italian 
all through. After the reduction in the number of dialect 
parts, the local characters, as might be expected, are 
generally servants, or at any rate people in the humbler 
ranks of society, and we see a regular tendency to keep up 
the old-fashioned arrangement of comic scenes in serious 
opera. Thus in Scarlatti’s opera, Rodimarte and Rosina, 
the two servants, have just the same sort of scenes at the end 
of each act as, for example, Orcone and Dorilla in his 
“Tigrane”; and in Leo’s comic operas we find the same 
thing. We see, therefore, that so far from the comic opera 
being derived from the intermezzo, the intermezzo might 
have been derived from the comic opera as easily as from the 
serious opera. The attempts to parody the style of grand 
opera are often extremely amusing, even to a foreign reader 
who, like myself, has only the very slightest acquaintance 
with the Neap>olitan dialect, and who has no means of 
understanding the innumerable allusions that there may be 
to things of purely local and momentary interest. The form 
of parody that is most obvious to the historian is the 
introduction, generally towards the end, of a young lady 
who gives the company a short autobiography in elaborately 
elegant Italian, sometimes punctuated, like the Prologue’s 
speech in the “ Midsummer Night’s Dream,” so as to convey a 
sense different from that which she might be supposed to intend. 
She has generally been discovered unexpectedly, and informs 
us that she belongs to a noble Roman or Florentine family, 
that her father was taking her by sea to Genoa or Leghorn, 
as the case may be, that they were seized by pirates, her 
father killed and herself made prisoner. Further questioning 
elicits the fact that she is a singer, upon which she is 
requested to oblige with a song. A harpsichord is brought on 
to the stage, and she sings the last new fashionable aria, no 
doubt giving a humorous imitation of the airs and graces of 
the last new fashionable prima donna or primo uomo. This 
takes place in Leo’s comic opera “ La Somiglianza di chi 
r ha fatta,” and in this case Merlinda, the young person 
whose sad history has been related above, chooses to sing a 
song from Leo’s own serious opera “ II Trionfo di Camilla,” 
produced the same year. 

The opera buffa probably contributed more or less to the 
downfall of that characteristic figure of eighteenth century 
musical life, the male soprano. Comic opera was not suited 
to his style. Probably his deportment on the stage was too 
artificial and stilted to be endurable in a part which demanded 


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Leonardo Leo, 

lively and natural acting. The force of habit was, however, 
too strong. Audiences had grown so accustomed to hearing 
the representatives of Scipios and Caesars sing florid airs in a 
high soprano voice that not even in opera buffa could they 
allow their heroes to descend to a tenor or a bass. For one 
evil another was substituted : the second was a lesser one, 
certainly, but none the less an evil, and an evil perpetuated 
down to our own day, in spite of would-be reformers. The 
hero’s parts were sung by women, and so it is to the 
Neapolitan comic opera that we must trace the origin of the 
“principal boy” of our pantomimes and burlesques. 

A second important development which owed much to the 
comedies of Leo and his contemporaries was the tendency to 
gather up the characters at the end of an act into something 
like a chain of movements working up to a dramatic and 
musical climax at the fall of the curtain. The invention of the 
concerted finale, as it is called, has hitherto been ascribed to 
Nicola Logroscino, and its development to Piccinni. About 
Piccinni’s share in the work I am not yet able to give a 
decided opinion ; as to Logroscino, the few examples of his 
finales that remain to us do not warrant the supposition. 
His concerted finales are certainly an advance upon his 
predecessors in the humorous treatment of voices and instru- 
ments, but they are in no way ahead of Leo’s so far as 
structure is concerned. The practice of extending the finale 
to a chain of several movements was probably introduced by 
Galuppi, though I have found one finale of Leo in two move- 
ments, the first slow, the second quick. This is in the opera 
“ Lo Matremonio annascuso,” and it is unfortunate that we 
have no means of deciding its date. It is not necessary to 
repeat here what I have already said in my Life of Alessandro 
Scarlatti about the early origin of the concerted finale. 
Scarlatti, as we know, did not realize anything like the full 
possibilities of the form ; Leo and Vinci appear to have been 
the first to systematize it in their comic operas. But both 
Leo and Vinci are bitterly disappointing even in their longest 
examples. The tendency, as we should naturally expect at 
this date, is towards some sort of sonata-form ; but there 
appears to be singularly little sense of climax, either dramatic 
or musical. We constantly find that instead of the characters 
joining in one by one and ending with a sort of chorus, as in 
the second act of “ Figaro,” to take a classical example, they 
leave off gradually, and most of these finales end with a 
solitary character on the stage, who seems, if we can judge 
from the score, to have enough to sing to make an anti-climax 
and not enough to place him in a position of dramatic import- 
ance. Nevertheless, we are bound to remember that the 
score of an opera, especially an old one, is often misleading ; 
and we must make considerable allowances for the stage 

Leonardo Leo. 67 

business which must often have played a more important 
part than our imaginations are capable of reproducing. 

A third important item in the Neapolitan comic opera is 
its treatment of folk-song, a subject which is of the greatest 
interest to us all at the present day. Italian folk-song is a 
very much neglected field of research, and the amount of 
work done by modern Italian historians for the traditional 
melodies of their country compares very unfavourably with 
what has been collected in the United Kingdom, in Germany, 
Bohemia, Hungary, and other states. The Italians are too 
much absorbed in producing new music to care much for the 
preservation of the old. Every year the Neapolitans celebrate 
the festival of the Virgin by a pilgrimage to her shrine at 
Piedigrotta, which finds its artistic expression in a profusion 
of popular songs, some of which have become permanent 
favourites with all English visitors to Naples, though 
Neapolitans would consider them very much out of date. 
Every year produces its new specimens, good, bad, and indif- 
ferent, and it is remarkable how little the type has changed 
in the course of two centuries. Almost every comic opera of 
Leo’s period has one or more songs of this kind, and for the 
historians of folk-song they ought to pro\'e very valuable 
material. (Illustration: “Amai na mpesa,” from “Amor 
vuol sofferenze.’’) 

I have thought it better to speak of the comic opera 
generally than to describe Leo’s operas separately in detail. 
They are, of course, all in manuscript, and most of them are 
at Montecassino. The most famous of all is to be found at 
Paris as well, and a copy of the first act only is at Naples. This 
is “ Amor vuol sofferenze,” from which the song just sung is 
taken. The opera was extraordinarily popular, and, as 
sometimes happened in those days, was known under two 
other titles, “ La Finta Frascatana ” and “ II Cioe.” 
Florimo, with his usual carelessness, supposed them to be 
three separate works ; indeed, the single act in the library of 
the Naples Conservatoire is catalogued as “ Camilla ed 
Emilio,” these being the first two characters mentioned. 
Cavaliere Leo identified this with “Amor vuol sofferenze” 
by comparing it with the complete libretto in the same 
library, and I was fortunate enough to find the opera 
complete at Montecassino. A study of the score and 
libretto showed us that the opera was very probably the 
same as that mentioned as “La Finta Frascatana,” since the 
plot turns on the fact that the heroine, Eugenia, disguises 
herself as a native of Frascati. All doubt was removed by 
the well-known passage in the letter of President des Drosses 
to M. de Neuilly. Writing on November 24, 1739, he says, 
“ We have had four operas at the same time at four different 
theatres. After having tried each in turn, I soon left three 
F 2 

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Leonardo Leo. 

of them in order not to miss a single performance of the 
‘ Frascatana,’ a comedy in dialect, of which the music is by 
Leo. What invention ! what harmony ! what excellent 
musical jesting ! I shall bring it to France.” It is clear 
from this that this opera, which was produced in 1739, was 
if not officially at any rate commonly known by the more 
convenient title of “ La Frascatana,” or “ La Finta 
Frascatana,” under which name it was revived later. The 
opera was also called “ II CioS,” from the absurd character 
Fazio Tonti, of Lucca, a muddle-headed person who is 
perpetually explaining and contradicting himself by 
means of this word. He has two fine scenes in the course 
of the opera, one of which you shall now hear. The 
accompaniment is for strings. You will notice the elaborate 
accompanied recitative that precedes the air, and the skill 
with which Leo has employed the form for comic purposes. 
In the air itself, the orchestra is divided into two similar 
groups, playing alternately, like a double chorus. The 
composition is evidently a parody on Leo’s own ecclesiastical 
style, perhaps to illustrate the pompous and self-sufficient 
character of Fazio. (Illustration ; “ lo non so dove mi sto.”) 

This song brings us conveniently to the remaining side of 
Leo’s work — his compositions for the church, which are 
better known than any of his secular works. The “ Dixit 
Dominus” in C major, for eight voices and orchestra, is of 
course too well known to need further comment here, as it is 
published by Messrs. Novello, edited by Sir Charles Stanford 
from the autograph in the Fitzwilliam Museum. The 
Fitzwilliam Museum also possesses a “ Dixit Dominus” in D, 
for ten voices and orchestra, which is quite as fine, if not finer. 
I have already mentioned his two celebrated oratorios, “ La 
Morte di Abele,” and “ Sant’ Elena al Calvario,” the latter 
of which contains some remarkably beautiful music. In the 
more severe style there is the nine-part motet “ Heu nos 
miseros,” the well known “ Miserere ” for eight voices, and a 
very interesting collection of little motets for the Sundays of 
Lent, of which the autograph score is in the British Museum. 
All Leo’s best church music seems to belong to his later 
years ; the “ Miserere ” is dated 1739, the “ Dixit ” in D was 
composed in 1742, and the motets for Lent in the year of his 
death, 1744. 

Leo’s church music is always characterized by the three 
qualities which I venture to think are the most important in 
this class of music — beauty, dignity, and solidity of work- 
manship. He is at his best in massive fugal movements ; a 
good example has been printed by Professor Prout in his 
book on Fugal Analysis. His aria movements are of course 
of the conventional shape, with a good deal of florid vocal 
writing ; but that does not make them any the less beautiful 

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Leonardo Leo. 


or the less dignified. It is interesting to compare Leo’s 
church music with that of his contemporary Durante, who 
had a very high reputation for this branch of art, probably 
because he devoted himself to it almost exclusively, and never 
ventured upon opera. It is easy to see why Durante was 
more popular as a church composer than Leo. Durante is 
sentimental ; Leo is not. Durante’s technical skill was no 
doubt quite as great as Leo’s in the matter of counterpoint. 
But he has no great love for massive contrapuntal effects. 
His parts weave in and out on purely conventional lines ; the 
same sequences and imitations are perpetually recurring, and 
his most individual moments are to be found in his some- 
what sugary solos. When he is at his very best, he is most 
touchingly beautiful, and seems to foreshadow Mozart. But 
Durante could not keep his style up to a high level for any 
length of time, and soon sinks back to the commonplace. 
Leo hardly ever attempts the pathetic, and if he has a fault, 
it is dryness. But his sense of tonality and form is strong ; 
his fugues may be devoid of sentimentality, but they are 
vigorous, and he knows how to make his subjects contrast 
and stand out clearly. He writes his music in the truly 
classical spirit, knowing — as Scarlatti knew, as Mozart and 
Beethoven and Brahms knew — that a comptosition must 
develop organically out of its own musical ideas, and not 
depend upon the suggestion of things purely external to 
music. ^Illustration: “Lamentations.” — Lam. ii. 12.) 

This difference of temperament between Leo and Durante 
caused the next generation of Neapolitan composers to fall 
into two groups, the“Leisti” and “ Durantisti.” The disciples 
of Leo aimed at richness of harmony, at part-writing and 
counterpoint — in short, at scientific composition, in the best 
sense of the word. Durante’s disciples were all for clearness 
and facility. We see at once the virtues and the vices of 
both methods. Both styles are of course necessary to all 
good music ; we find both in Scarlatti, both in Mozart. It 
would be unjust, indeed, to deny to Leo all beauty and 
clearness of melodic style ; still, he is always too intellectual 
to catch the public ear as did Pergolesi. 

It is not altogether easy to sum up Leo’s position in the 
history of music. The music of his day is more obsolete 
to us than that of Scarlatti. We certainly could not 
revive his operas, serious or comic, and given the 
mediaevalizing tendency of church music at the present 
day, even his Masses are not likely to be heard again. He 
claims our attention on a variety of small technical details. 
He went a step farther than Scarlatti in the development of 
sonata-form, that is, in the binary form used for nearly 
all operatic arias. He continued Scarlatti’s work in the 
direction of the operatic finale ; he greatly improved upon 

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Leonardo Leo, 

Scarlatti’s treatment of the modern harmonic counterpoint, 
especially in the composition of double and triple fugues ; 
and he is probably to be considered as one of the founders of 
modern counterpoint as an educational implement. Con- 
sidering him as a poet, viewing his work as a whole, he is a 
composer for his own period rather than for eternity. The 
best that we can say of him, and it is what anybody might 
be proud to have said of himself, is that he consistently 
upheld the highest possible ideal of beauty, dignity, and solid 
scientific writing in an age that has generally been regarded 
as one of the most decadent periods through which the art of 
music has passed. 

The illustrations were sung by Mr. F. C. S. Carey. 


The Chairman. — We must first have the pleasure of 
thanking Mr. Dent for his very interesting paper, and 
then Mr. Carey for his rendering of the illustrations. 
(Votes of thanks passed unanimously.) It struck me with 
regard to the songs which were sung, especially the second 
song, that the accompaniments exhibited a wonderful com- 
pleteness of design worthy even of Mozart. As to Leo’s 
Church music, of course all those who have any acquaintance 
with it know that his vocal part-writing exhibits a very high 
order of contrapuntal merit. Mr. Dent remarked that Leo’s 
Masses were never likely to be heard again. Many years ago I 
conducted a performance of one of them at an amateur concert 
in the old Hanover Square Rooms which proved to be an 
interesting revival ; but the chief obstacle to their use in a 
present-day church service is inherent in their structural design, 
for when we speak of Leo’s Masses (and I might add the Masses 
of Pergolesi and Clari and other writers of the time, of which 
specimens are to be found in the Fitzwilliam Museum) we 
must remember that, generally, they are not complete Masses. 
It seems to have been the custom of that time to compose 
elaborate music in many sections for the Kyrie and Gloria 
without any for the Credo or Sanctus or Agnus Dei. 
Thinking this very strange, I asked for an explanation from 
one who knew a good deal about such subjects, and he told me 
it was the practice of that time, while the Priest said the 
words of the Mass throughout, for the choir to sing these 
elaborate settings of the Kyrie and Gloria as motets irrespective 

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Leonardo Leo. 71 

of what the Priest happened to be singing or saying. I think 
this is the correct explanation ; for such elaborate and lengthy 
compositions cannot possibly be classed as specimens of the 
so-called “ Hunting Mass,” i.e., a Mass specially intended for 
use when the members of the “ hunt attended a preliminary 
Service, but did not wish to be kept from the day’s sport 
longer than was absolutely necessary.” Leo and his con- 
temporaries seem to have had the command of tolerably large 
choral resources, as they almost invariably wrote in at least 
five parts ; but it must be remembered that the choirs of those 
days consisted entirely of first-rate singers with first-rate 
voices, and could afford to be numerically smaller in proportion 
to the orchestral accompaniments than we are accustomed to 
nowadays. Probably some of you will remember that when 
the original parts of Handel’s “ Messiah ” used in the 
performances at the Foundling Hospital were discovered a 
few years ago, it was found that there were twenty-eight 
voices against thirty-two instruments, which is a very different 
proportion from that now considered necessary. 

Mr. Dent. — I have only to thank the members of the 
Association for listening to my paper so patiently, and I 
should like to express my thanks to Mr. Carey for taking so 
much trouble in the preparation of his very difficult 

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March 20, 1906. 


In the Chair. 



By The Rev. G. R. Woodward, M.A. 

With Illustrations sung by the Quire of Gray's Inn Chapel under 
Mr. J. C. Long, Mus. Bac. Oxon. 

It is commonly thought that the German Choral had its 
birth in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, i.e., at the 
period of the Reformation in Germany. This is a great 
mistake. We may allow indeed that it reached its zenith at 
that time ; but it was the fruit of seed sown in previous ages, 
and can boast of a long and noble ancestry. No nation in the 
world is possessed of so rich a treasury of Sacred Song as 
Germany. Considering the short time placed at my disposal, 
and the number of illustrations to be given, I trust that I may 
be pardoned for at once plunging in medias res. 

A. — The chief sources from whence the German Choral is 
derived are the following : — 

(i.) The Liturgical Hymns, in the Latin tongue, of the 
Catholick Church in the West, with their Proper Melodies . — 
Thus we have the “ Veni, Redemptor gentium ” (A) a hymn 
of the fourth century by St. Ambrose, which became in the 
vernacular “ Nun komm der Heiden Heiland ” (B) ; — 

Hypo-Dorian Mode. 

Veni, Redemptor gentium. lambic, dimeter acatalectic. 

Ve-ni, Redemptor gen-ti-ura, Os- ten -de par-turn Vir-gi - nis : 

Mi-re-tur om-ne se-cu -lum:Ta-lis par-tus de - cetDe-um. 

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German Hymnody. 

Nun iomm dtr Heiden Heiland. Trochaic, T T-T-y. 

Nunkommder Hei - den Hei-land, Der Jung-frau - en 

Kind er - kannt : Des sich wun - der al - le Welt ; 

Gott solch Ge - hurt ihm be - stellt. 

Other instances might be mentioned, such as “ A solis ortus 
cardine,” of the fifth century, which we have as a Choral in 
the form of “ Christum wir sollen loben schon ” : or the “ Veni 
Creator Spiritus ” (of the ninth century), translated as “ Komm 
Gott Schopfer, heiliger Geist.” 

(ii.) Vernacular, Geistliche Lieder, or Spiritual Songs of the 
people. — But before going further, it seems right to give 
honour where honour is due, and briefly mention the Song- 
Schools at the Abbeys of Fulda, and St. Gall, in the ninth and 
tenth centuries, not to speak of the influence of the Crusades 
(by which the Western nations of Europe came in contact 
with the traditions and legends of the East), or of the Swabian 
line of Emperors, who, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, 
did much to encourage the cultivation of chivalrous, popular 
and religious poetry ; not forgetting the Troubadours of 
Provence and the wandering Minstrels. These all contributed, 
in their day, to the development of the second source of the 
German Choral, viz., “ Vernacular Geistliche Lieder.” 
Pre-eminent among these comes the famous Easter Hymn (a) 
“ Christ ist erstanden.” It has been described* as the oldest 
and strongest of all German Church-songs, and can be traced 
back to the middle of the twelfth century. It was chanted 
not only in Church, but on the battle-field, as at Tannenberg 
in 1410 and at Pavia in 1525 ; sung before meals, at the 
yearly display of the Imperial Reliquaries at Niirnberg from 
1424 to 1524 ; taken up by the audience and spectators of the 
Medieval Mystery, Miracle or Morality Play ; still in use all 
over Germany, Catholick and Lutheran alike ; still to be heard 
at Monte Cassino in Italy, and during Easter-tide sung by the 
Benedictine monks there, with thrilling effect. In 1550 Wizel 
tells us “ Here chanted the whole Church with loud resound- 
ing voices and joy unspeakeable ‘ Christ ist erstanden.’” 

* See P. Ambrosias Kienle, O.S.B., “ Kleines Kirchen musikalisches 
Handbuch.” Freiburg im Breisgau, 1893. 

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German Hymnody. 


“ Of all other songs ” said Luther, “ one may grow weary, but 
‘Christ ist erstanden’ will wear for ever." It consisted 
originally of but one verse, with Alleluyas : — 

(a) Christ ist erstanden. 

Dorian, or ist mode. 



1 1 ; 1 


-fr 0 



h G 


— eJ 1 1 1 

w = — “ 


Christ is a - ris - en From his three-day pris - on 



Meet it is to make mer-rie : Je - sus will our so-Iace be. 
/TN , ^ 

eJ « g-^-g 

A1 - le - lu - ya. A1 - le - lu - ya, A1 - le - lu - ya. 

/_*JL ! . li 

1 : II 

! 1 II 

z ^ ^ 

__ 1— L r 

A1 - le - lu - - ya. 

See " Cowley Carol Book,” No. 43 . 

(6) “ Ein Kindelein solobelich ” (Christmas-tide), grounded 
on ‘‘ Dies est leticie,” a twelfth-century hymn, now generally 
known in Catholick and Protestant Germany as " Der Tag, 
der ist so freudenreich.” This exquisite Carol, or Choral, is 
extolled by Luther as a ‘‘ Schon christliches Lied, das 
allenthalben gesungen wird,” — “ a lovely Christian song, 
everywhere sung.” Johann Spangenberg, in 1581 , describes it 
as “ one of the oldest songs of our good old forefathers, sung 
by them possibly for some hundreds of years before now.” 
V. Herberger, in 1615, speaks of it with enthusiasm thus: 
‘‘ ‘ Ein Kindelein so lobelich ’ is inherited by us from our 
old German great-great-grandfathers. It has come into 
such wide use in Christendom, that it will continue until 
Doomsday. The melody is good, the words still better.” 
For the words of the above Choral, freely and beautifully 
translated by Dr. J. M. Neale and set to its proper melody, 
see “ The Cowley Carol Book,” No. 18, ‘‘ Royal Day, that 
chasest gloom.” 

Here is another Geistliches Lied : (c) “ Nun bitten wir den 
heiligen Geist.” To Dom. Ambrosius Kienle, in his book 
already quoted, I am indebted for the following tribute of 
praise bestowed upon this venerable and devout Choral. The 
latter is first mentioned by Berthold von Regensburg (* 1272) 
thus: — “ This is a right profitable song: the longer ye sing 

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German Hymnody. 

the better will ye love it, and sing it, and call upon God with 
all devotion from the ground of the heart. It was a goodly 
find, and an useful ; and a wise man was he, whoever first 
invented this Song.” For the music and English words of 
this Choral, see “ Songs of Syon,” No. 65. 

(iii.) The third source of the German Choral is to be 
sought and found in the Old German Volkslieder or 
Secular Folk-Songs . — Amongst many examples we may 
name the following : (a) “ Wach auf, mein Herzens Schone," 
which supplied the melody, motif and metre of “ Nun freut 
euch, lieben Christen G’mein,” known in England as “ Great 
God, what do I see and hear ” : — 

Nun freut euch, lieben Christen G’mein. Klug, 1535. 

The Lord of might from Si - nai’s brow Gave forth his 
And Is - rael lay on earth be - low, Outstretch'd in 

voice of thun - der : 
fear and won - der : 




— — 






Be - neath his feet was pitch - y night. 

And at his left hand and his right The rocks are rent a - sun ■ der. 

(b) “ Mein G’miith ist mir verwirret,” became “ O Haupt, 
voll Blut und Wunden.” 

(c) “Vater unser im Himmelreich ’’ is probably a South 
German Air. 

(d) “ Inspruch ich muss dich lassen ” became “ O Welt, 
ich muss dich lassen.” 

(«) “ Entlaubet ist der Walde ” is to be recognized as 
“ Ich dank dir, lieber Herre.” 

(/) “ Jetzund kompt die Zeit heran ” supplied the melody 
and quatrain of “ Ach wann komt die Zeit heran ” ; and 
English men and women little imagine that when singing 
“ Songs of praise the Angels sang ” they are using an old 
German secular air — A Shepherd’s ditty to his lady-love. 

(g) “ Ich gieng einmal spazieren,” in like manner, passed 
into “ Helfft mir Gotts Gute preisen.” 

(li) “Ich hort’ ein Fraulein klagen ” has survived under 
the words of “ Herr Christ, der einig Gotts Sohn.” 

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German Hymnody. 77 

(i) “ Graff Andres Schlick, der edle Herr ” is known as 
“ Lobt Gott, ihr Christen alle gleich." 

(7) “Flora, meine Freude,’’ as “Jesu, meine Freude." 

Jesu, meine Freude. 

iJ i '■ ’ 






1 ! ^ 

1 " 


— ^ 


— 1 t=t; ti=d 

je - su, my chief plea - sure, Price- less pearl and trea - sure, 
’Tis from thee I hoc - row An - ti • dote for sor - row, 

Balm for 

of my heart! I Hav-ing thee. O 
ev - ry smart : ) 


me ! 

--=1 , - 

» ^ J — 1 

-j — 1 — - 


— H 

~ r r c 

J C J 

I ^ n 



But, without thee, all my glad - ness Turn-eth in - to sad - ness. 

At the beginning of the sixteenth century there was a 
considerable number of fine secular melodies floating about, 
and many of these were enlisted in the service of the 
sanctuary. Some of them were known as “ Hildebrand’s 
Ton,’’ “Herzog Ernst’s Ton,” “Jacob’s BrUder’’ (sung by 
pilgrims on the road to and from St. James of Compostella), 
the “ Lindenschmiedlied,” “ Bruder Veit’s Ton.” This last 
is called in some of our modern English hymnals “ Saxony,” 
but it is given in such a degraded form as hardly to be 

(iv.) The Minnesinger . — Though comparatively few of 
the Minnesinger melodies can be traced, there can be little 
doubt but that some of their tuneful lays and songs, 
particularly those in praise of Our Lady, may be found in 
such collections as the “ Graduale Mosburgense,” a MS. of 
the year 1360, and the “ Piae Cantiones” of Peter of Nyland, 
printed in 1582. For though these minstrels’ principal 
theme was “ Minne ” (love), yet they sang also of religion and 
patriotism, “ Of faith, holiness, freedom and manly worth, of 
spring, and the golden time of youth.” They were mostly 
men of knightly rank, and they sang at Court, and in 
baronial halls and castles, before “ lords and ladies gay,” to 
the accompaniment of “ geigen ” or fiddle. Amongst the 
Minnesinger must be mentioned with special honour the 
names of Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von 

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German Hymnody. 

To this period, roughly speaking from the beginning of 
the thirteenth until the fourteenth century, belong probably 
such noble numbers as : — 

(a) “ Ein kind geborn zu Bethlehem ” (“ Puer natus in 
Bethlehem ”) — 

Dorian and Hypo-dorian Modes. 






f ■ r vr Y r 

'O' w 

A Babe is born in Beth-le - hem, In Beth - le - hem. 

A1 - le 


r^TrTf Y Tf^TYfY 


Great joyauncefor Je -ru-sa-lem, Al-le, Al-Ie, AI -le. Al- le- lu- ya. 

The Canto fermo of the above is in the lower part. The 
descant (being in itself an attractive tune) gradually ousted 
the original air, and was harmonized by Bach and others as 
the chief melody. See Bach’s “ 371 Vierstimmige Choral- 
gesange ” No. 12, and “ The Cowley Carol Book,” No. i. 

(b) “ Es ist ein Reis (Ros) entsprungen ” (“ Flos de radice 
Jesse ”) : — 


\ !- 

The no - ble stem of Jes - se Hath flow'r-ed 
Re-joicegoodChristianpeo - pie, Re - joice ye. 

at . . this tide, ) 
far . . and wide. ) 

In Ma - ry see the stem ; And who the Flow’r but 

sus, the Babe of Beth - le - hem. 

Je - 

The above is the representative of an earlier Volkslied. 
“This melody, like a sweet-scented flower, is doubtless much 
older than the oldest source to which we have hitherto been 

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German Hymnody, 


able to trace it” (Meister). “The wonderfully beautiful 
melody has saved the words from perishing ” (Hoffmann). 
The four-part setting of the above by Michael Praetorius, 
1609, cannot possibly be improved. See “ Cowley Carol 
Book,” No. 19. 

(c) “ Es komt ein Schiff geladen ” (gefaren) — 

Johann Taoler. 





— r 


— 1 — r 




— r 







^ m 

— ^ ^ ^ . 

There comes a gal -ley la - den Up to the high- est board : 

She bears a heav'n-ly bur - - den, The Father's e-terne Word. 

" Cowley Carol Book.” No. 31. 

(d) “ In dulci jubilo.” “ Already known about the year 
1350, being mentioned in the life of Blessed Suso" (Kienle). 
“ Beautiful beyond description ” (Vehe, 1537). The text is 
a mixture of Latin and German lines, “ macaronic ” as it 
is called. For introducing this melody into this country 
Englishmen owe a debt of gratitude to R. L. de Pearsall. 

(v.) The Meistersinger. — The “ Minne-gesang ” of the 
chivalrous knight was succeeded in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries by the “ Meister Gesang” of the middle-class 
artisan. At Niimberg, Augsburg, and other South German 
towns Singing Schools were established. On holidays, 
burghers and ’prentices of various trades met for the study 
and performance of vocal music. The students were com- 
posed of “ Scholars,” i.e., beginners. They began by studying 
the Tabulatur, with its formidable rules. After passing this 
examination, they became “ School-friends.” When able to 
sing according to Code, they were called “ Singers.” When 
able to compose words for other persons’ tunes they became 
“ Poets” ; and when competent to write songs and words of 
their own, “ Meistersinger.” From these latter was chosen 
a “ Marker ” to note musical errors in the candidates’ 
exercises. Poems irreligious or immoral were strictly 
forbidden. The prizes varied, the highest being a silver 
chain and a medal stamped with the likeness of King David. 

The Meistersinger reached their meridian in the middle of 
the sixteenth century ; after that they declined. Here and 
there they lingered on, but by the middle of the nineteenth 
century they had completely died out. Richard Wagner has 
immortalized the “ Meistersinger von Nurnberg” by his opera 

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German Hymnody. 

of that name. In his admirable Chorale “ Wach auf,” and 
“ Da zu dir der Heiland kam," he has quite caught the spirit 
of the Old German Choral. 

(vi.) Foreign element . — German Hymnody has been 
enriched by the importation of melodies from neighbouring 
countries. For instance : “ In dir ist Freude ” is an Italian 
madrigal, “ A lieta vita,” by Gastoldi da Caravaggia (1591) ; 
“ Was mein Gott will, das g’scheh allzeit ” is a French 
secular tune, “ II me souffit de touts mes maulx ” ; “ Freu 
dich sehr, O meine Seele” is Louis Bourgeois’ “Forty-second 
Psalm tune ” (1551) : — 


Freu dich sehr, O meine Seele. 

O thousweetest Source of glad*ness, Light’s all-love-ly fountain-head, ) 
Who a -like in joy and sad-ness, Leav-est none un- vis - it * ed : ( 

Breath of God-head, highest King, Who, up-hold-ing every thing, 

— 1 — 






P - 

M ^ 

^ a 



V — 

— j 


^ j 1 j , 

Wilt up>-hold, with love undy-ing ; Hear, O hear me humbly crying. 

Claude Goudimel’s setting of the above, with the melody in 
the tenor, is quite a model of good workmanship. 

Thanks to the labours of Valentine Triller and Johann 
Leisentrit (1567), we are familiarized with many Bohemian 
hymn melodies. 

B. Among the characteristics of the German Choral is : — 

(i.) Its Tonality . — One of its chiefest charms, the secret of 
its power and everlasting youth, is due to the fact that the 
tunes are written in one or other of the old Church 
Gregorian modes — e.g., “ Vater unser im Himmelreich ” is a 
Dorian (ist mode) melody. “ Nun komm der Heiden 
Heiland ” is a specimen of the sad second mode. “ O 
Haupt voll Blut und Wunden ” owes much of its popularity 
to its being a Phrygian or third mode tune. The same may be 
said of the less-known but equally touching melody of 
“ Christus der uns selig macht ” (“ Patris sapienti^ ”). 

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German Hymnody, 


Christus dtr unt s$lig macht. 

On the wood his arms are stretch’d, And his hands are riv - en : 

In like- wise his bless -ed feet Are to tor-ture giv - en. 

For one of M. Praetorius' settings of this melody, ut " Songs of Syon,” 
No. 34. 

Specimens of fourth, fifth and sixth mode might easily be 
found. “ Gelobet seystu, Jesu Christ ” (Christmas) is a 
stately Choral in the eighth mode. 

“ Es ist das Heil uns Kommen her ” is an example of the 
seventh or Mixo-Lydian scale : — 

Es ist das Heil uns Kommen her. 

Re-joice, good Christians, raise the strain : The Cru - ci - fied 

The sol - dier guard was all in vain; The Lx>rd hath burst 

is ris 
his pris 

Seal, nap - kin, earthquake,moon by night. 

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German Hymnody. 

(ii.) Its Irregularity of Rhythm . — Another secret of the 
German Choral’s fascination here. By rhythm is meant 
the pauses and breaks in the flow of the melody, the uneven 
length of the notes, the quickening up or slowing down of 
the movement. The charm and character of the tune 
depend first upon its melody, and next on its rhythm. To 
equalize the value of the notes and to write them all with one 
distinct recurring accent and beat, destroys the individuality 
and beauty of the tune. The introduction of bars has 
something to answer for in this matter. The desire to 
promote congregational singing may be urged as the motive ; 
nevertheless it reduces the Choral to such unsupportable 
uniformity, that after such mutilation the tune is generally 
cast away altogether. 

Here is an instance. Philip Nicolai’s Choral (1597) : — 

Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme. Songs of Syon, No. i. 

Upl a -wake ! from high-est stee - pie, The watchmen cry, A - 

Hear those cla - rion voi - ces knell - ing. The hour of midnight 

- wake, ye peo-ple; O Sa- lem, from thy slum-ber rise 1 ) 

loud forth tell - ing; Say, where are ye, O Vir-gins wise?/ 

The Bridegroom comes ; a - wake! Up 1 lamp and lan-tern take ; 

A1 - le - lu - ya. With rea - dy light ye must to - night 

Go forth to join the mar -riage- rite. 

How a fine melody may be, and has been, ruined by equalizing 
the value of the notes may be seen by comparing the Genevan 
Psalm tune. No. cxl., with its modem representative, that 
goes by the name of “ Commandments.” The notes may be 
the same, but the spirit is fled. 

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German Hymnody. 83 

A leading authority on music considers the following as fine 
a specimen of rhythm as can be imagined : — 

Personent kodie. “ Piae Cantiones," 1582. 


-1 n 




• * 

Let the 

song be be - 


For the 

bat - tie is 


And the vie - to - ry won : And the foe is scat - ter’d, 

And the pris - on shat - ter’d : Sing of joy, joy, joy ; 

■ Q-%„ 1 1 

— 1 

r— ^ 





1 I 




1 1 

' I 

' -■ .T. ^1 


^ M 

L.Q . Jl 

Sing of joy. joy. joy : And to - day Raise the lay. 

- # rof/. 


^ II. 

1 1 n 

I>K ff ! 1 ■ 1 ■ 

! ; — 1 t1 

!'■ d J -J J 

1— « ^ U 

Glo - ria in ex - cel - sis. See " Cowley Carol Book," No. 56. 

(iii.) In its Peculiar Metres . — For a complete and syste- 
matic table of all the different metres of the German 
Choral the student is referred to Joh. Zahn’s admirable work 
“ Die Melodien der deutschen Evangelischen Kirchenlieder." 
The stanzas may be briefly described as varying in length 
from two up to twenty-six lines. Besides the Classical 
Sapphic, Alcaic and Elegiac, plenty of examples of Long 
Measure and Common Measure are to be found, together 
with many other more or less pleasing metres. Strange to 
say, Short Metre (as it is called) is conspicuous by its absence. 
One beautiful and remarkable feature of German Hymnody 
as distinguished from English is the prevalence of a well- 
assorted combination of the Iambus and Trochee. Stemhold 
and Hopkins’ Metrical Psalter, though itself practically 
obsolete, has nevertheless exercised a permanent influence 
on the prevailing metre and general character of our Hymns, 
which is lambic. The German language has an immense 
advantage over ours in its ready supply of Trochaic endings 
or feminine rhymes. English lyric and ballad poetry owes 
G 2 

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German Hymnody. 

much of its charm to these double rhymes ; but a constant 
supply of them is not easy to procure. English translators 
and writers of sacred verse have always admired but have too 
often avoided metres entailing feminine rhymes, apparently 
because of their difficulty ; but whenever anyone has taken 
the trouble, he generally has been rewarded. 

Here is an example by Ben Jonson : — 

“ I sing the birth, was born to-night 
The Author both of life and light ; 

The Angels so did sound it : 

And like the ravish’d Shepherds said, 

Who saw the light and were afraid. 

Yet search’d — and true they found it." 

And another by John Mason Neale : — 

“ Young and old must raise the lay 
That their heart engages : 

For the Child is born to-day 
Who is King of ages.’’ 

The above double rhymes are refreshing after seven long- 
metre quatrains such as this : — 

“ The voice says, Cry ! O let us cry ! 

Though standing on death’s awful brink, 

Men feast, they jest, they sell, they buy. 

And cannot see, and will not think." 

Here is another example of a German Choral, iambic and 
trochaic endings. It has been translated by Miss F. E. Cox ; 

Stein und dornig ist der Pfad. 

“ Steep and thorny is the way 

To our home in heaven ascending : 

Happy he who every day 

Walks therein, for Christ contending : 

Happy when, his journey o’er, 

Conquering he to Christ shall soar." 

This is the original metre — a stanza of six lines trochaic 
with double rhymes in the second and fourth lines. A 
melody in the above metre has been mangled and adapted to 
Keble’s “ Sun of my soul,” an iambic stanza of four lines. 
“ As with gladness men of old ’’ has been similarly spoiled. 
Joh. Hermann Schein wrote and harmonized a fine tune for 
a six-line trochaic hymn, but his setting, now called 
“ Eisenach ’’ or “ Leipzig,” has been shamefully handled by 
English musicians, and shortened into Long Measure and 

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German Hymnody, 


re-harmonized. Nevertheless it is still attributed to Schein, 
with all the shine taken out of it. But to return to German 

The writer of the Nibelunglied had much to do with the 
origin of a popular German hymn melody — practically, that 
of our “ Jerusalem the Golden.” But the Minnesinger may 
be considered as having influenced, if not having formed, 
the model of the best German Choral metres. In their song, 
each verse commonly consisted of three parts. The first two 
parts were called the Stollen, or Posts, and corresponded 
more or less to the Greek Strophe and Antistrophh The 
third part, generally the longest, was the Ahgesang, and 
would represent the Epode. 

Take the following for an example : — 

An W asserjliissen Babylori. 

“ Beside the flood of Babylon (Strophh.), 

We sate us down in sorrow : 

When as we thought on thee, Syon, [Anti strophe.) 

We wept by night and morrow : 

Our psalteries and harps unstrung [Epode.) 

Upon the willow-trees we hung : 

Our masters, void of pity, 

(That led us captive) oft would call 
Upon us for a madrigal, 

A song of Syon-city.” 

It may be mentioned, to judge from the number of 
excellent tunes in the metre of ” Great God, what do I see 
and hear," that this was a specially favourite measure. 

Authors — (i.) Of the Words : — 

Of the host of German hymn-writers, several names stand 
in the foremost rank of merit. The earliest of these is 
Martin Luther. His work consists of translations of old 
Latin hymns and antiphons, metrical versions of certain 
psalms and other parts of Holy Scripture, with a few 
hymns mainly of his own composition, all marked by 
characteristic vigour and plainness of speech. 

Nicolaus Herman, Pastor of Joachimsthal in Bohemia, 
less known than he deserves, has been described as a “ poet 
of the people, homely, earnest and picturesque in style.” 
His hymns appear not to have been written for church use, 
but for the children of his schools, in order to supplant 
profane songs. 

Paul Gerhardt, whose early years were spent amid the 
horrors of the Thirty Years’ War, is to my mind the 
greatest poet of them all. Of his 117 hymns, some of the 
loveliest are his “ Geh’ aus, mein Herz, und suche Freud,” 

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86 German Hymnody. 

“Befiehl du deine Wege," “Nun ruhen alleWalder,’’ “ Frolich 
soil mein Herze springen,” and “ O Haupt, voll Blut und 

Johann Scheffler, called “ Angelas Silesius,” a convert to 
Catholicism, who took Holy Orders, has enriched German 
hymnody with some of its choicest treasures. These became 
even greater favourites with the Lutherans than with his 
co-religionists. “ Liebe, die du mich zum Bilde," and 
“ Keine Schonheit hat die Welt,’’ alone are monuments of 
their author’s piety and poetical genius. 

Amongst others who deserve more than passing notice are 
Paul Speratus, author of “ Es ist das Heil" ; Nicolaus Decius, 
author of “ Allein Gott in der Hoh sei Ehr,” and of “ O Lamm 
Gottes unschuldig ’’ ; Nicolaus Selnecker ; Bartholomaeus 
Ringwaldt ; Martin Schalling ; Philip Nicolai, author of 
“ Wachet auf! ruft uns die Stimme,’’ and of “Wie schon 
leuchtet der Morgenstern ’’ ; and Martin Rinckart, to be 
envied as the writer of “ Nun danket alle Gott.’’ 

On the whole it may be said that the melodies of the 
German Chorals, as music, are equal or superior to the 
theology and poetry of the words. The latter are not seldom 
indefinite, tautologous, diffuse, and often hardly worth while 
translating. But they compare favourably with Tate and 
Brady, and even with Sternhold and Hopkins ; and certainly 
they never degenerate into vulgarity or irreverence, nor is 
there to be found in German hymnody the like of the 
following extract from a so-called Spiritual Song quoted by 
Dr. Neale : — 

Dear friend. 

I’m glad to hear that well you bear the stroke, 

By which a gracious Hand your thigh-bone broke : 

The coach on which you rode, when homeward-bound, 
Upset, and threw you flat upon the ground. 

(ii.) Of the Melodies and Settings: — 

In the majority of cases it is practically impossible to say 
how far the authorship of the melodies themselves is due to 
the musicians to whom we owe the harmonies and settings. 
While Luther is known to have invented several new 
melodies, he more often made use of those already popular, 
whether sacred or secular. Thus the tune of his “ Sie ist 
mir lieb, die werthe Magd,’’ a versification of Rev. xii., was 
originally a secular song beginning “ Ach ! Lieb mit Leib.’’ 
The air of his Chorale, “ Jesaia dem Propheten das geschach,’’ 
IS said to be an adaptation of an old Gregorian Sanctns, 
Agnus and Credo. The following example, taken from 
W. Baumker’s e.xcellent work entitled “ Das Katholische 
deutsche Kirchenlied,’’ vol. i., p. 29, shows Luther’s great 

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German Hymnody. 


musical ability in shaping some apparently old material into 
a magnificent new Chorale. Anyhow, there is a strong family 
likeness between “ Ein’ feste Burg’’ and the “ Missa de 
Angelis ” Credo and Kyrie : — 

■‘Ein' feste Burg" (1545) compared with "Missa de Angelis" 
Cudo and Kyrie. 

—19 s n ® n 



Gros Macht und viel List 

Sein grau’ • sam Ru - stung ist, 



S' u • num bap - tis - ma no - bis sub Pon-ti - o Pi - la - to, 

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German Hymnody, 

Among “ such as found out musical tunes,” or composed 
settings of existing melodies, are to be mentioned the names 
of Heinrich Isaak, Michael Weisse, Nicolaus Decius, 
Joh. Spangenberg, Wolfgang Dachstein, Joh. Kugelmann, 
Nicolaus Herman, Ludwig Senfel, Joh. Walther, Wolfgang 
Figulus, Nicolaus Selnecker, Joachim von Burck, Barth. 
Gesius, Seth Calvisius, Philip Nicolai, Melchior Vulpius, 
Hans Leo Hassler, Michael Praetorius, Melchior Teschner, 
Melchior Franck, Barth. Helder, Heinrich Schutz, Joh. 
Hermann Schein, Joh. Schop, Apelles von Lowenstem, 
Joh. Cruger, Heinrich Albert, Georg Neumark, Joh. Rudolph 
Able, and Joh. Georg Ebeling. 

These are the names of some of the chief musicians, 
masters of the quire, composers and organists who 
“ flourished ” between the end of the fifteenth and the 
middle of the seventeenth century ; who, each in his 
generation, contributed to that storehouse of church song 
on which Johann Sebastian Bach was brought up from a 
child, which became part of his very nature, and these he 
took for the themes of his organ works, church cantatas and 
the like. Of the above-mentioned musicians special praise 
and reverence is due to the works, harmonies and settings of 
Michael Weisse, Seth Calvisius, Barth. Gesius, Melchior 
Vulpius, Heinrich Schiltz (the greatest German composer of 
the seventeenth century), Joh. Hermann Schein (Cantor and 
predecessor of Bach at the Leipzig Thomas-Schule), 
Johann Cruger, and last, but not least of all, to Michael 
Praetorius, the most practical and industrious church- 
composer of his day. 

As for the melodies and settings which the Gray’s Inn 
Quire have sung this afternoon, they are of age and must 
speak for themselves. Suffice it to observe that they are the 
compositions of men who were the contemporaries, pupils, or 
successors of such giants and masters of counterpoint as 
Josquin des Pres, Arkadelt, Orlando di Lasso and Sweelinck 
in the Netherlands ; of such consummate madrigal writers as 
Byrde, Tye, Tallis, Benet, Morley, Dowland, and Orlando 
Gibbons in England ; of Festa, Marenzio, Croce, Vittoria, 
and Palestrina in Italy ; of Bourgeois, Le Jeune and Goudimel 
in France. 

It is to be hoped that editors of modern hymn-books will 
in future refrain from attempting to amend the harmonies 
of such men as Philip Nicolai, Michael Praetorius, J. H. 
Schein, Heinrich Schutz, or Joh. Cruger, for example by 
filling up their “ open fifths ” and robbing their work of 
the characteristics of that particular age, work which is 
admirable for its honesty, directness and simplicity, 
bearing evident tokens of truly noble and well-ordered 

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German Hymnody. 89 

H^rxlUbster Jesu, was hast du verbrocken, J. Cruger, 1C40. 

Ah I dear-est Je - su, what was thy transgres-sion ? Say, what the 

tres-pass where-of thou wast guilt -y? What mis-de-mean-our 

'J — 0 — jH 

— 1 

p 4 

^ If « If—] 

1 — 1 1 1 1 

mer - it - ed the 

sen - tence — 

Death on the 

Rood - tree ? 

Christe, du Beistand. Apelles von Lowenstern, 1644. 

“] 9 ‘ ■ ■ * , — 1 1 - — \- 



1 rj • r t ^ rj 

^ c? W ^ 

Now it is eve- ning : time to rest from la - hour; 



^=3— J 

— =1 

cr — b 

i ^ m ^ ^ 1 ^ — . 1“ 


m ^ 

Fa - ther, ac - cord • ing to thy will and plea - sure, 

(/ L 1 1 1 1 1 

1 — 1 — 


X ‘ J 


f/K J 1 cJ r CJ 

Through the night * sea • son. have thy faith - ful peo • pie 

Safe in thy keep ■ ing. Safe in thy keep - ing. 

Schmucke dich, O Hebe Seele. J. Cruger, 1649. 

Deck thee, O my soul, with glad-ness. Quit thy haunts of 
Like the dy - ing thief for - giv - en. And with sin - ful 

-0-4 , 

n 1 1 

= 1 — 


p— I 



■ 0 " » ^ J ^ 



TO r : 

— A : 

— « — “ — ® 


^n and ^d - ness ; I g^, ^ saith the Psal - ter, 

Ma - ry shn - ven, ) ° ’ 

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German Hymnody. 

To thy God and to his A1 - tar: Heed the word by 

Je- sus spo • ken, "Take and eat my Bo - dy bro - ken.' 

Wer nur den lieben Gott Idsst walten. Georg Neumark, 1657. 





the Lord! in glad-some cho-rus, Te De-um, 

to God : with voice ca - no-rous ; Ho I ev -'ry 

all ye peo - pie sing 
na • tion, bless your King 

I From age to age, from 

I -■ 

n m - ^ i ' 



— p 

==1 — 1- 




-0-1- ] 

coast to coast, Praise Fa - ther, Son, and Ho - ly Ghost. 

Influence and Popularity of the German Chorale. 

As in France the cause of the Huguenots and the spread 
of Calvin’s unenviable tenets were undoubtedly furthered by 
Marot and Beza’s metrical versions of the Psalter, set to 
popular chansons and original melodies and settings by 
Louis Bourgeois and Claud Goudimel, as in Ireland the 
downfall of our unhappy King James the second was helped 
by the singing of a popular air with the refrain Lillibull6ro- 
bullen-a-ld, and as the Marseillaise played an important part 
in the French Revolution, so the German Choral, especially 
“ Ein' feste Burg,” proved a mighty lever in the history of 
the Reformation in Germany. Here again the ballads and 
lyrics of the people produced more effect than all your laws 
and articles of religion put together. Music in times of 
revolution, political or religious movements, has more 
influence than all the orations and eloquence of your Ciceros, 
and all the philippics of Demosthenes himself. 

Luther was shrewd enough to supplant the unmetrical 
words hitherto sung by clergy and quire in a language not 
understanded of the people, wherein only the educated few 

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German Hymnody. 

might join, by metrical hymns in the vernacular, wedded to 
some already familiar strain, and in his wisdom made the 
common folk feel that they were taking an intelligent part in 
public worship, appealing thereby, and not in vain, to his 
fellow-countrymen’s inborn love of music and poetry. 

The following short anecdotes will testify to the influence 
and popularity of the German Choral : — A Roman Catholic 
priest was sent from Magdeburg to counteract the growth 
of Lutheranism at Brunswick. To him the people gave 
audience, until a certain Brunswicker started the tune of the 
Choral “Ach Gott vom Himmel.” The whole congregation 
picked it up at once, and the preacher had no alternative but 
to descend from the pulpit, his sermon unfinished. 

Another instance. After the disastrous battle of Jena, a 
Prussian trumpeter found himself cut off from his squadron 
and hotly pursued by some French cuirassiers. His only 
chance was to jump from a rocky height and swim across the 
rapid river Saale. A cry of admiration and astonishment 
rose from his pursuers when they saw horse and rider take 
this terrible leap. The brave Prussian arrived safely on the 
opposite bank, but his horse was drowned. His first act on 
the opposite shore was to fall on his knees and thank God. 
For this purpose he drew and winded his trumpet, and struck 
up the Choral “Jesus meine Zuversicht.’’ But while so 
engaged a bullet from the enemy released the soul of this 
Christian soldier, and he passed to God, dying in his country's 
service, his lips in the act of breathing his Redeemer’s praise ; — 

Jesus meine Zuversicht, J. CrOgbr (1658^ 

-fl 1 1 1 

Jr ! 1 ! — i “WT ar ^ 

w 1 -* — - — V Z 

^ F J .I- 1- 

^ s» 1 

Je-sus lives ! Thy ter-rors now 
Je-sus lives! By that I know 

-f» 1 1 ■ 1 -1 

Can, 0 Death, no moreap- pal me ; | 
i^rom the grave he can re - call me : / 

■A s — H-jf-j — d — -m — o — 1 — f — P — 

V. _j 

1 II 

Brighter scenes at death commence; This shall be my con - h-dence. 

Another example. A certain aged Kapellmeister had heard 
tell of the fame of the young Johann Sebastian Bach. 
Anxious that justice should be done to his favourite Choral, 
after his departure from this life, the old man sent for Bach, 
to test the latter’s capabilities. He requested him to sit down 
on the organ stool and harmonize him “ An Wasserflussen 
Babylon.’’ Quite satisfied with Bach’s performance, the 
old organist exclaimed “ Nunc dimittis, Domine.” 

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German Hymnody. 

How the Germans loved their best Chorale may be proved 
by the headings and titles written over their favourites. One 
Choral is labelled as “ Ein iiberauss schon Gesang,” another 
is “ Ein Englisch Gesang,” a third “ Ein gar alt frdlich und 
andachtig Weyhenachtliedlein,” and so forth. 

Causes of Decline (from circa 1660). 

In “ The Chorale Book for England,” Mr. Otto Goldschmidt, 
an honoured member of the Musical Association, writes as 
follows : — 

“ Towards the middle of the seventeenth century, music 
enters into a new phase. Until then its sole purpose was to 
serve the Church, through the medium of the human voice and 
the organ. But now instrumental music, though at first sub- 
ordinate, begins to make its appearance. Secular cantatas, 
forerunners of the opera, are produced on festive occasions 
at the Courts, particularly of Italy ; and German musicians, 
like those of other countries, who had gone to Italy for study 
or other purposes, on their return spread the influence which 
they had themselves received. 

“ In Protestant Germany, church music gradually became 
less an object of ambition to composers ; fewer tunes, and 
most of them inferior in quality and vigour to those of the first 
century after the Reformation, sprung up ; nor did the nation 
at large any longer set its seal upon them by adopting or 
rejecting them, as before. In the hymn books of the latter 
part of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth 
century we also find some of the best old tunes omitted, 
others deprived of the triple time (f) peculiar to them, others 
again without their distinct rhythm, all levelled to a general 
standard of lifeless uniformity.” 

Although the later German Choral generally falls below the 
high level of the earlier ones, such as “ Es ist das Heil,” 
“ Mit Fried' und P'reud,” or “ Aus tiefer Not,” yet the follow- 
ing three examples prove that the art of writing good 
melodies had not died out at the latter end of the seventeenth 
century : — 

(a) Lobet den Herren alter Herren. Seelenharpf, Oholzbach, 1664. 

Praise, O my soul, the Ixjrd of glo - ry. Him will I 
Yea, he shall be my theme and sto - ry. While I have 

wor - ship, to . . . the death ; ) 
be - ing, life . . and breath : J 

Morning and eve-ning by 

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German Hymnody, 


heart and tongue, God and his prais -es shall be sung : 

(b) W(U Gott thut das ist toohl gethan. Gesangbuch, Niimberg, 1690. 

O let your loins be girt a-gen. And see your lights be bum-ing, | 
And ye yourselves like un - to men, Who wait their lord's re - turn-ing : 1 

That they may hear his knock full clear (He stand-ing in the 

gate • way). And o - pen to him straight-way. 

(C) Lobe den Herren, den mdcktigen Konig. After J. Neander, 1680. 

Praise to the Lord, the om - ni - po-tent Sov-ran be giv - en : I 
Blend we our voi - ces in cho - rus with An-gels in hea - ven : | 

Wake, harp and lute, Psal - te - ry, dul - ci - mer, flute ; 

Praise him from mom-ing till e - - ven. 

Practical Considerations. 

In conclusion, please do not imagine that this lecture is 
delivered from an antiquarian point of view, or inspired by a 
spirit of aestheticism ; nor think that the German Chorale 
are to be admired as so many curious pieces of old Dresden 
china. Gobelin tapestry or Mechlin lace. It is desired that 
they should become better known in England, and appreciated 

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94 German Hymnody. 

for their solid worth. A certain number of these words and 
tunes have been introduced into our modern hymnals, some 
in their original form, others more or less mutilated. Some 
of these exotics have already become favourites in England. 
But a great number still remain unknown to the average 
English churchman. The question is, how are these to be 
popularized ? Only by providing words in the original metres. 
There have been praiseworthy attempts to supply this need, 
and in this connexion we may mention the names of J. C. 

i acobi, A. T. Russell, Miss Catherine Winkworth, Miss 
'ranees E. Cox, and to come down to the present day, Mr. 
Robert Bridges, Editor of “ The Yattendon Hymn Book.” 
In “ Songs of Syon,” I have myself endeavoured to provide 
suitable English words for many of the most dignified old 
German melodies, and it is from this collection that most of 
the illustrations, which you have heard this afternoon, have 
been taken. Here allow me to enter a strong protest against 
the immoderate size of our English hymn books. We want 
not to multiply the quantity, but to improve the quality of the 
words and music sung. 

It seems desirable that these German hymn melodies 
should be better known, if only that organ players may be 
the better enabled to appreciate and interpret those works 
of Bach, Brahms and others which are based upon some 
German Choral or other. If this paper be printed, I hope to 
subjoin a list of books which may be found useful to any of 
my hearers or readers who desire to make further study of 
this interesting subject. 

List of Works likely to give assistance to Students 
OF German Hymnody. 

Geystliche gesangk Buch- 
leyn. Wittenberg, 1524. 
Eyn Enchridion oder Hand- 
buchlein. Erffurd,mdxxiiij. 
Ein Neu Gesengbuchlen. 

Michael Weisse. 1531. 
Genevan Psalter. 1559. 

Joh. Leisentrits Gesangbuch. 

1567. 1573. 1584- 

Piae Cantiones, Ecclesias- 
ticae et Scholasticae 
veterum Episcoporum. 
Opera Theodorici Petri 
Nylandensis, Gryphis- 
waldiae. 1582. 

Musae Sioniae. By Michael 
Praetorius. 1605 — i6io. 
(Nine parts, containing 
1244 settings.) 

371 Vierstimmige Choral- 
gesange. Joh. Seb. Bach. 
Breitkopf und Hartel, 
Leipzig, 1831. 

Thesaurus Hymnologicus. 
Herm. Adalbert Daniel. 
Halis. mdcccxli. 5 vols. 
Der evangelische Kirchen- 
gesang. Carl von Winter- 
feld. Breitkopf und Hartel, 
Leipzig, 1847. 

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German Hymnody. 


Geschichte des Kirchenlieds 
und Kirchengesangs. 
Stuttgart, 1847. 2 vols. 
Hymni Latini Medii Aevi. 
Franc. Jos. Mone. Friburgi 
Brisgoviae. Herder, 1853. 

3 vols. 

Kern des deutschen Kirchen- 
gesangs von Dr. Fridrich 
Layriz. Noerdlingen, 1854. 

4 vols. 

Die Melodien des deutschen 
Evangelischen Kirchen- 
gesangbucher. Stuttgart, 

Johann Scheffler’s (Angelus 
Silesius) Sammtliche poet- 
ische Werke. G. J. Manz, 
Regensburg, 1862. 

The Chorale Book for 
England. By W. S. Bennett 
and Otto Goldschmidt. 
Longmans, London, 1863. 
Medieval Hymns and 
Sequences. John Mason 
Ne^e. 2nd edn. Masters, 
London, mdccclxiii. 

Das deutsche Kirchenlied 
von der altesten Zeit bis zu 
Anfang des xvii Jahr 
hunderts. von Philipp 
Wackernagel. Leipzig, 
1864. 5 vols. 

Choral Kunde. G. Dorings. 
Danzig, 1865. 

Evangelischer Liederschatz. 
von M. Albert Knapp. 
Stuttgart, 1865. (Said to 
contain 3130 German 

Geistliche Volkslieder aus 
alter und neuerer Zeit 
mit ihren Singweisen. 
Friderich Hommel. Leip- 
zig, 1871. 

Clement Marot et Le Psautier 
Huguenot. O. Douen. A 
I’imprimerie nationale. 
Paris, 1878. 2 vols. 

Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians. Sir George 
Grove. Macmillan, 1879. 
See Revised Edition, by 
J. A. Fuller Maitland. 

Hauschoralbuch. Alte und 
neue Choralgesange. 
Gtitersloh, 1887. C. 

Die Melodien der deutschen 
evangelischen Kirchen- 
lieder. Johann Zahn. 
Gtitersloh, 1889. 6 vols. 

(containing 8806 Chorale, 
with much information). 

Hymns from the German. 
Translated by Frances 
Elizabeth Cox. S.P.C.K., 
London, 1890. 

Analecta Hymnica Medii 
Aevi. By G. M. Dreves, 
S.J. O. R. Reisland, 
Leipzig, 1892. (Many 
volumes already in print.) 

A Dictionary of Hymnology. 
By John Julian. John 
Murray, London, 1892. 

Kleines Kirchen musik- 
alisches Handbuch. 
Ambrosius Kienle, O.S.B. 
Freiburg im Breisgau, 1893. 

Paul Gerhardt’s Geistliche 
Lieder (131). P. Reclam, 
Jun., Leipzig. 

Magnificat. Katholisches 
Gebet- und Gesangbuch fur 
die Erz-diocese Freiburg. 
Freiburg im Breisgau, 

Yattendon Hymns. Robert 
Bridges. Oxford University 
Press, 1895 — 1899. (In 
4 parts.) 

The Cowley Carol Book. G. 
R. Woodward. Mowbray, 
London, 1902. 

Songs of Syon. G. R. Wood- 
ward. Schott, London, 

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German Hymnody. 


The Chairman.— I am sure you will all wish to join me 
in thanking Mr. Woodward for the very interesting and 
instructive paper he has read, not forgetting the small but 
excellent choir he has brought with him. In the presence of 
so many church musicians it does not become me to say 
much. What I know about the subject I have picked up 
from a long course of church-going. It appears to me that 
the mass of hymns is so enormous that few of us can give the 
necessary time to studying them. Many of us will know 
Dr. Julian’s “ Dictionary of Hymnology ” ; the index of that 
collection is a vast work. In an unguarded moment I began 
to take in a book of sequences by a member of the Society of 
Jesus, M. Drives. The book has been going on for I do not 
know how many years ; I think I piossess about forty-seven 
or fifty volumes, and it shows no signs of coming to an 
end. Then there are Baiimker and Winterfeld and many 
other writers of German hymnody who have made enormous 
collections. There is one point I should like to note, and 
that is, these hymns are not confined to the Protestant 
Church in Germany. If you go into a Roman Catholic 
church you may frequently hear the people singing with great 
delight what 1 suppose are the very same hymns. 

Sir Frederick Bridge. — I was attracted to this lecture 
because of the great importance that I attach to this question, 
and also because it has fallen to my lot in the last year or 
two to have to do with a very large hymn-book for the 
Wesleyan Methodists. I have had occasion therefore to 
consider many of these points, and to know many of the 
difficulties that beset editors when they try to get at the real 
original form of some of these tunes. Therefore I think the 
Paper is one of extreme value, not only very interesting to 
listen to, but with the effect enhanced by the admirable way 
in which these illustrations have been sung. You do not 
hear that sort of thing in an ordinary church. You have to 
face all these points ; but there is no doubt that the question 
of hymnology ought to be most carefully considered. Of 
course it is a question that has been talked about, and much 
has been done. Quite lately a great effort has been made in 
connection with that great hymn-book, almost the authorised 
hymn-book of our Church — “ Hymns Ancient and Modern." 
An effort has been made by men of learning and instruction 
in the matter to put before the English Church what they 
consider the ideal, with the result that nobody will buy the 
new edition. I do not say whether this neglect is deserved 
or not. I had nothing to do with the revision — fortunately 
for me. I am sure the revisers were actuated by the best 

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German Hymnody. 


intentions, but the task was a very difficult one. If the 
people love a tune, we cannot insist on their giving it up. 
We are in a somewhat different position in these days from 
that of old times. Then the psalmody was to many people 
the only opportunity for musical performance. There was 
not the attraction of other kinds of music outside the church 
to compete with this ; so they had to learn it, or else there 
was very little for them. In the Abbey or St. Paul’s when a 
fine old tune is selected, I am sure it is a delight to hear the 
people give tongue to it. Where we so often fail is in the 
indecent haste with which the hymns are sung, and some- 
times too much refinement on the part of the choir with the 
idea of stopping the people from singing. I always enjoy 
playing a tune; and I believe the organist has it in his p>ower 
to incite the people to sing, or even to make them sing softly 
— I know I can do it to a certain extent, if I can get hold of 
a good tune, and particularly if I can get hold of a good 
hymn. Unfortunately, composers had to set tunes to hymns 
in which no two verses agreed. You cannot make the same 
music fit them. We are surrounded by difficulties of this 
sort. I do not think that with the march of modern music, 
and people accustomed to something more than diatonic 
harmonies, you will ever get the people to swallow these old 
diatonic tunes and nothing else. You must give way a little 
to their love of modern tonality. I am not sure they will 
always stand finishing a tune with the third. But it is a 
great relief to mix a little of these old things with the 
modern. I can only say I have been much edified by the 
Paper, and I shall, I am sure, hope to read it in the 
Proceedings of this Association. It will be extremely 
valuable for reference, and I daresay it will guide many of 
us in the right direction. 

Mr. R. R. Terry. — I do not know whether I am rising 
rather late, but after the distinguished speaker who has just 
sat down it would not become me to say much. Not long 
ago we had to consider the question whether clergymen 
should criticise the Bible, and now it seems to be the question 
whether musicians should criticise hymn-books. Some 
people seem to think they are the last who should be allowed 
to have a voice in the matter. There are one or two points 
I have noted. It seems to me that the superiority of the 
ancient tunes rests on one or two main grounds. First of all, 
as the hymn is to be sung by a congregation, you must allow 
for the fact that the congregation is liable to drag or hurry 
according to the temperature or the weather. As a rule there 
is a dead stop at the end of the third line. The Angels’ 
Song, by Orlando Gibbons, as it appears in the hymn-book is 
in triple time. The original will, I think, be found in 
Sir Frederick Ouseley’s volume of Gibbons’ works, and there 

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German Hymnody. 

you find a distinct pause, just as we find in the tunes in the 
German books. That gives the organist an opportunity to 
start again with the congregation. If there are, perhaps, 
three chords accompanying the last syllable, the congregation 
get behind, and cannot join fairly in the next line. The next 
point is one which I have learnt to appreciate very much 
more since we have had plain-song accompanied every 
day. In a modern piece of music we find the tendency of the 
singer is to look at his notes first and to let the words follow 
as they can. The average choirman reads the notes first, and 
if he can get the words in so much the better, but they come 
second. I think you will find in the ancient tune the words 
lead and the tune follows them. There 1 think we have 
another strong point in favour of the old tunes, and one which 
it has always appeared to me makes for their general 
popularity wherever they are used and sung intelligently. 
The third thing seems to'me that by these rests the phrases 
are made shorter than we often have them in a modern tune 
of to-day, and the consequence is that the phrases are easily 
memorised and intelligently sung when the time comes. 
There was one point that I think the Chairman mentioned 
with regard to the unison singing in the Catholic churches of 
Germany, and he concluded the tunes of the one division of 
the church were much the same as those of the other. I 
think in that respect he is perfectly right. I rather take a 
pleasure in looking into old-fashioned churches outside the 
ordinary tourist routes. One often finds there books of 
modem tunes, written apparently by the organist, containing 
some very old material. I am speaking of the Catholic 

Mr. Fuller Maitland. — I can only add my testimony to 
the great pleasure I have felt in listening to the lecture and 
the chorales. I quite agree with the feeling that these freer 
rhythms make for extreme beauty, even though they may be 
impossible for a modern congregation. I do not know how 
they can be introduced into practical worship-music, as these 
rhythms correspond to no regular scheme as we understand 
it now ; and yet this is one of the great beauties of the old 
chorales. I suppose the ordinary hymn-book maker could 
hardly refrain from cutting them up into lengths in the regret- 
table fashion with which we are now familiar. It would be 
interesting to see if any compromise could be made, such as 
to have some verses with the original rhythm and some with 
the adapted rhythm ; but even this could be managed only 
by much pre-arrangement. You will remember the Old 
Hundredth tune, which we are now accustomed to hear with 
notes of different lengths. You will notice that when the 
version is used with notes of equal length some of the people 
will show a tendency to delay on what should be the longer 

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German Hymnody. 99 

notes. We may hope improvements of this kind may be 
made generally. 

Mr. W. H. Thelwall. — I think we have had a sort of 
undercurrent of comparison between the German chorale 
and the modern English hymn-tune. I do not think they 
are altogether comparable. In the days of my youth I used 
generally to go on Sunday morning to the Temple Church 
and in the evening to St. Sepulchre’s. At the Temple 
Church they always had one, at least, of the fine old English 
Psalm-tunes, which are very different from the modern 
English hymn-tunes. At St. Sepulchre’s they used Mercer’s 
collection, which consisted very largely of German chorales. 
My impression is that the old English psalm-tune was very 
much the finer. I do not know whether musicians will 
agree with me ; but certainly, in my opinion, the old English 
Psalm-tunes were far grander than the dull, dry chorales 
which they generally played at St. Sepulchre's. I do not 
say there are no exceptions ; many of them are admirable ; 
but many of them have well been committed to oblivion. 

The Rev. G. R. Woodward. — The reason why the last 
speaker found the German chorales so dull is that the 
editors had destroyed the old rhythm ; the German chorale 
had not a fair chance. If you will see how they are hacked 
into shape in that collection, I think you will admit that 
that is the reason. I have only to say I came here in great 
fear and trembling, and I have to thank the audience for 
their very kind patience and indulgence. I am very grateful 
indeed to the choir, who have had only a week to practise ; 
but they have acquitted themselves, I consider, most 
honourably, and I thank them one and all. 

H 2 

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April 17, 1906. 

In the Chair. 



By H. Heathcote Statham. 

The main object of this paper is to consider the treatment 
of the organ in accompanying chorus and orchestra in 
combination. A word may be said first, however, as to the 
organ and the orchestra in instrumental compositions. 
Handel, as we know, wrote concertos for organ and orchestra, 
of some importance in their day, in which the organ was 
treated — as the pianoforte is treated in a modern concerto — as 
a solo instrument alternating with the orchestra, or partially 
accompanied by ft. This combination, however, does not 
seem to have been often attempted since. I know of one 
orchestral composition by Mozart in which an organ part is 
added, but there are no solos for the organ, and the part 
written for it is of little importance and so little charac- 
teristic of the instrument that it is hardly worth taking into 
account. Recently however two French composers, Widor 
and Saint-Sagns, have revived the idea in symphonies written 
for organ and orchestra. I do not, however, propose to go 
into this subject, from a conviction that the combination is a 
mistake. With the small, weak English organs of Handel’s 
day, and with an orchestra in which oboes were as numerous 
as violins, the balance was different, and the general effect 
may have been more homogeneous ; but the large organs of 
modern days cannot be effectively used as a solo instrument 
contrasted with the orchestra, except perhaps by confining the 
solo passages to the lighter sounds of the soft stops. As soon 
as you begin to use the larger sounds of the organ, which 
constitute its real grandeur, in opposition to the orchestra, 
the two seem to belong to such different worlds that there is 
no relationship between them. Perhaps the main reason 
for this is that the organ is the only important instrument in 
which the sounds are produced and modified by setting a 
mechanism in action, and not by the direct physical impulse 
of the performer ; and the greater power you employ the more 
marked this distinction becomes. Hence those composi- 
tions of Widor and Saint-Saens, two or three of which I have 
heard, however interesting in a way, only seemed to me to 
demonstrate that the attempt was a mistake. And Handel’s 
concertos are far more effective, on a large modern organ. 

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The FtincHon of the Organ. 

when arranged for the organ alone than when heard with 
organ and band. We have the possibility of employing the 
organ in the rear, as it were, of the band, to give greater 
grandeur and mass of tone, as in Sullivan’s “ In Memoriam ” 
overture, but this can only be effectively done in passages of 
a simple and massive character. 1 have sometimes thought 
that a grand effect might be produced, for the moment, by 
introducing the organ at the commencement of the Finale to 
the C minor Symphony ; but then there comes the question. 
What are you to do with the organ afterwards ? It might 
sound very fine during the enunciation of the principal 
subject, but it would very soon be out of its element. 

In the use of the organ in combination with chorus and 
orchestra the case is different. The tones of the organ are 
not then so directly contrasted with those of the orchestra ; 
the chorus introduces an element of tone which is more in 
accord with organ tone ; so much so indeed that while organ 
and orchestra alone, as has been observed, are antagonistic, 
organ and chorus alone, without orchestra, make a most 
suitable combination provided that the character of the 
organ accompaniment is suited to the instrument. When we 
get them all three together, the chorus bridges over the gulf in 
tone which separates organ from orchestra, while on the other 
hand the organ ma}’ to a certain extent be regarded as a kind 
of blend in the composition, or a background of tpne filling in 
the gaps in band and chorus, or giving weight and support 
to the chorus. It may also be used as an obbligato part 
with a special design of its own ; or, where no part has been 
written for it, it may be introduced ad libitum in such a 
manner as to form a special design, or to give special 
emphasis to selected passages. 

The writing of a special organ part in an oratorio or other 
such choral work, even in modern times, seems, so far as I 
have had time to explore the subject, very unusual. Even 
Mendelssohn, who was an organ-player and a composer with 
a great sympathy for the organ, has not provided any organ 
part in his two leading oratorios, though he has left evidence 
that he had decisive ideas as to the manner in which the 
organ should be introduced in them. If I remember right, 
Costa wrote a special organ part in his Eli, with directions 
as to the stops to be used ; but it is manj' years since I saw 
the score, and Costa’s oratorios are so completely passe now, 
that it is hardly worth while looking them up again. But in 
Saint-Saens’s Mass, Op. 4, there is an elaborate and 
interesting experiment with organ accompaniments. He 
scores here for full orchestra and two organs, one called the 
ripieno organ which merely plays with the chorus, the other 
called the solo organ, but which would be more properly 
called the obbligato organ. He probably composed the Mass 

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The Function of the Organ. 


for a church where there were two organs. In one of the 
choral movennents the obbligato organ is used as a kind of 
antiphon to the chorus ; the chorus sing a phrase of two or 
three bars in full harmony, the organ responds with an 
answering phrase in full chords, of the same character ; and 
so the two go on alternating. That is really a fine and 
workable idea, and more might be done with it. 

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The Function of the Organ. 105 

In another movement there is a short introduction for the solo 
organ, which ceases at the entry of the voices, and the ripieno 
organ then starts a soft arpeggio accompaniment, in combina- 
tion with the band ; a manner in which, as before observed, the 
organ might very well be used with the orchestra in purely 
instrumental compositions, only that it is hardly worth while 
introducing it merely for that. 

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The Function of the Organ. 


In a choral work, where you can make use of the louder part 
of the organ also, along with or in relation to the chorus, 
it is another matter. This composition of Saint-Saens’s is 
very interesting and suggestive in regard to our subject, and 
I do not know of any other work on exactly the same lines in 
regard to the organ. 

By far the larger number of cases, however, are those in 
which no organ part has been written, and where the organ 
part must be supplied ad libitum, and it is to this class of 
cases that I specially wish to invite consideration. There 
seem to be such differences of practice, and so much very 
unsatisfactory practice — sometimes in the entire neglect of 
the organ when it would be of the greatest value, sometimes 
in the piling of it on so as to drown everything else — that I 
think it is high time there was a little serious discussion of 
the subject. At the Handel Festivals the function of the 
organist seems to be for the most part purely ornamental ; 
he sits in a corner of his pew and looks at the organ. At 
another place I heard the concluding chorus of one of 
Handel’s oratorios accompanied all through on the full organ 
of a very powerful instrument, with the result that the band 
and chorus were almost inaudible ; the idea being, apparently, 
that you must make all the noise you can in the concluding 

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io8 The Function of the Organ. 

chorus of a work : which is as bad the other way.* On this 
occasion I complained to the authorities, and the organist 
was I believe asked to moderate his zeal in future. But ■ 
surely something better, something more artistically 
reasonable is possible, than these crude methods of using or 
of neglecting the organ. When I first used to go to oratorio 
performances, in a provincial town, the accepted theory, or 
at all events the accepted practice, was that the organ was 
always to be played all through the choruses, not so as to 
produce any special effect but as a part of the total effect 
which was considered proper to oratorio ; the organ never 
being made prominent, but forming a kind of background to 
the whole, the effect of which was rather felt than perceived. 
This was after all not the worst use to make of the organ, 
especially at a time when concert-room organs were not so 
large and powerful as they are now, and when a complete 
pedal organ with a i6-ft. reed was almost unknown in this 
country. It was distinctly better for the total effect to have 
the organ in this background fashion than to have no organ 
at all. But this was entirely an English practice. Those 
who have the misfortune to be as old as I am may remember 
the appearance of that rather clever musical novel “ Charles 
Auchester,” in which Mendelssohn was idolized under the 
name of “ the Chevalier Seraphael,” and how Charles 
Auchester, the young boy who had been carried into the 
seventh Heaven by his first hearing “The Messiah," was 
shocked to hear the “ grown-ups ” discussing it the next day 
in a coldly critical spirit, and especially lamenting the 
nuisance of the organ, which could not be kept quiet enough 
in the symphonies — “ there was Erfurt punching at the stops 
and could not get them in fast enough, and we had fortissimo 
against the fiddles.” That shows that the practice in London 
also was at that time to play the organ all through the 
choruses, symphonies and all ; and a further perusal of the 
book shows that it was a shibboleth of the aesthetic amateur 
world of London then that the organ in oratorio was an 
abomination ; it was not in the score, and why should it be 
played ; it never was in Germany, where they understood 
these things so much better ; and there are various sarcastic 
remarks on the subject in the course of the book. The 
amateur musical world of London has always had its 
shibboleths, and that was the shibboleth at that time. 
Considering that Mendelssohn is the idol of the book, it is 

• It is very possible that the conductor, with the strings playing close to 
him, was not aware of the preponderance of the organ, as I found that a friend 
who was playing among the violins was not aware of it, though he accepted 
my statement. Would it not be well for the conductor in such a case to 
leave the baton to some one else at rehearsal for one or two choruses, and 
hear how the organ blended from the body of the hall ? 

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The Function of the Organ. 109 

amusing to find that he says exactly the contrary. In the 
preface to his edition of “ Israel in Egypt,” for which he 
arranged a special organ part, he says explicitly — “ These 
works” (viz., oratorios generally) “ought of course never to 
be performed without an organ, as they are done in Germany, 
where additional wind instruments are introduced to make up 
for the defection.” But Mendelssohn was a very cosmopolitan 
pterson, and no German composer has ever been more free 
from national prejudices than he was. 

The old-fashioned practice of playing the organ all through, 
in an unostentatious manner, was not, as we shall see just 
now, Mendelssohn’s idea; but it is by no means the worst 
way of using the organ. It supplies something to the general 
effect, and it is inoffensive— except where “ Erfurt cannot 
punch the stops in ” fast enough (but that was before the days of 
pneumatic composition action) ; its weak point is that it 
neglects the opportunities furnished by the organ for assisting 
musical expression in special passages or in special 
movements. A second way, and the very worst way, is to 
regard the organ as a machine for adding more noise at the 
close of a composition ; that is, not only neglecting special 
opportunities, but perpetrating a special offence as well : and 
it is a misuse of the instrument far too common in the present 
day. I have heard “fortissimo against the fiddles,” not 
because the stops could not be got in, but out of sheer malice 
prepense, as the lawyers say. What do you think of this way 
of ending the symphony after “ O Thou that tellest ” in 
‘‘The Messiah ” ? — 

only an eminent organist but an eminent musician ; and I 
confess I find it impossible to understand how any one with 

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1 10 

The Function of the Organ. 

any perception of musical aesthetic could do such a thing. If 
the organ is to be introduced in that kind of manner I 
certainly think it would be better kept locked during the 
performance of an oratorio. 

The third principle, and what I think the right one, is to 
regard the organ in oratorio as a power to be judiciously 
applied either where its solid tones seem desirable as a support 
to the chorus, or where its introduction can have a special 
meaning, as emphasising or giving a marked character to a 
special passage. This latter use may apply not only to choral 
movements, but to the accompaniments to the solos. The 
cases where it can be well introduced in the solos are perhaps 
rare, and should be used with very great reticence, but they 
do occur, and I will mention two examples as showing the 
kind of thing I mean. Many years ago I saw in a private 
library a vocal score copy of “ St. Paul ” in which Mendelssohn 
had himself marked in pencil the points where the organ was 
to be introduced (the copy had I believe been used by the 
organist at one of the Birmingham Festivals). I do not 
know what has become of it now ; it would be an interesting 
possession, and the only point I can recall in it was one 
which fixed itself in my memory because it surprised me a 
good deal at the time. This was, that Mendelssohn had 
marked the organ to be introduced in the soprano air 
“ Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets,” not at the 
beginning but at the point towards the end where the opening 
subject and the opening words are returned to. That, as you 
will remember, is a passage in the air which demands the 
most impassioned delivery, and Mendelssohn evidently 
considered that the introduction of the grave tones of the organ 
at this point assisted the dramatic expression. The other 
incident I will mention was at a performance of “ Samson,” 
where, in the tenor air “Total eclipse,” Best, who was at 
the organ, introduced one soft and deep pedal note on the 
G sharp at the passage : — 

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The Functioti of the Organ. 


The organ was not touched through the whole air except that 
note (and the A on which it resolves). But it did its work ; it 
emphasised the gloomy character of the passage, and with 
all the more effect because it was the only introduction of the 
organ. If the organ had been introduced before, the effect 
would have been discounted. 

The principle on which the organ should be used or 
omitted in accompanying choruses depends on two main 
considerations ; first the musical character of the passages ; 
secondly, to some extent at all events, the sentiment of the 
words. Where the chorus parts are of a light and flowing 
character, where the effect of brilliancy and ease of 
movement is aimed at, the organ is in general rather in the 
way than otherwise, and tends to obscure the proper effect, 
where the chorus sing passages of sustained harmony, or 
where they represent part-writing in a severe contrapuntal 
style, the organ will be in its place and will assist and 
consolidate the effect. And where a chorus is accompanied 
by brilliant figures for the violins, the organ-player should 
never be tempted to double those. He may double the 
wind-parts very likely with good effect. The organ has an 
aflanity of timbre with them, but it has no such affinity with 
the violins, and to play with them in ornamental passages is 
only to hamper them in an effect proper to their character, 
by introducing a tone which does not combine with them. 
In regard to the question of sentiment, it depends partly on 
whether the music, or the subject it illustrates, is of a grave 
or a religious character, or the reverse. It may be replied 
that the idea of the organ being in any special sense a 
religious instrument is merely a matter of association, 
because it has been so much employed in churches. 
Association of ideas, however, is not in any case a force to be 
overlooked ; it has a great influence on our minds in many 
other matters besides music. But I think there is something 
more in it than that. The grave and sustained tones of the 
organ do seem to be allied to the more serious order of ideas, 
whether we take them as religious in the ordinary sense of 
the word or not. As a single concrete illustration, I would 
say, for instance, that in “Samson” I would introduce the organ 
(except in some instances where the musical form is unsuited 
to it) in the choruses of the Hebrews, and I would not 
use it in the choruses of the Philistines. Similarly, in 
“ St. Paul,” I would confine it to the choruses of the Christians 
(as before, where the musical form admits it), and would 
keep it out of the Pagan choruses. That kind of distribution 
is in keeping with its character, and assists, in a broad way, 
to emphasise the distinction between two opposing factions 
which is a feature in both oratorios. But there is another 
rather more recondite manner in which the organ may be 

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The Function of the Organ. 

used to mark a distinction in sentiment : either where the 

character of a chorus suddenly changes, or where it contains 
some distinctly marked motif which recurs at intervals and 
forms a dominating feature. As to the former case, take the 
first chorus in Handel’s “Joshua,” for example, which 
commences with a rather brilliant movement with an 
ornamental violin figure in the accompaniment till the 
passage where, after a full close, the basses start off with a 
kind of plain-chant to the words “ In Gilgal and on Jordan’s 
sacred plains.” Best was at the organ on one occasion when 
I heard this oratorio, and I said to my companion before the 
commencement, “ Now you will see Best will not touch the 
organ till we come to ‘Jordan’s sacred plains,’ and then he 
will put in full harmonies on the diapasons ’’ ; which was 
exactly what happened, and was I should think much 
what Handel himself would have done. At a performance of 
" Saul ” in London I noticed that in the chorus “ Envy, eldest- 
born of hell,” the organ was, on a similar principle, left 
untouched till the passage “Hide thee in the blackest night,” 
where the ground bass is interrupted and the whole character 
of the composition altered to a grave progression of full 
chords for the chorus. So far that was perfectly right, but 
unfortunately the organ was introduced with such a violent 
fortissimo as to drown everything else, which was a complete 
mistake and spoiled the effect ; what was wanted was weight 
of organ-tone, not noise, although the main idea was right. 
However it may be introduced for special effect in a passage 
of that kind, the organ should never drown the voices. 

Mendelssohn’s organ part to “ Israel,” written specially for 
an English edition of the oratorio, is of great interest and for 
the most part is an admirable example of what such an organ 
accompaniment in such a case should be. In his prefa.ce he 
says : — 

As for the organ part, I have written it down in the manner in which I 
would play it, were I called upon to do so at a performance of this 
oratorio. ... In England the organist usually plays ad libitum from the 
score, as it seems to have been the custom in Handel’s time, whether he 
played himself or merely conducted and had an organist under his control. 
Now, as the task of placing the chords in the fittest manner to bring out 
all the points to the greatest advantage — in fact, of introducing, as it were, 
a new part to compositions like Handel's, is of extreme difficulty, I have 
thought it useful to write out an organ part especially for those who might 
not prefer to play one of their own. . . . Wherever the word Bassi 

occurs in the organ part, I want the organ not to play at all (the notes 
being written merely to enable the organist to follow the performance) ; 
where the word Organo comes after it, the organist is to resume playing. 

Some of the points in his organ part may be touched upon. 
In the first chorus he employs the organ in some places only 
to strengthen the bass, particularly in the passage where the 
bass rises bar by bar to the high E flat. In “ They loathed 
to drink ” he keeps the organ back till near the end, which I 

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The Function of the Organ. 


do not agree with. I think it should have organ throughout, 
more particularly as in its original form it was actually an 
organ fugue. In the “ Hailstone ” chorus the organ enters 
fortissimo with the chorus ; a little too much of it, I think. 
In “ He smote all the first-born ” he omits the organ entirely, 
and in “ But as for his people ” he only introduces it at the 
pastoral passage “ He led them,” sustaining the harmonies 
only, and at the close, “ There was not one feeble person ” ; 
it should, I think, have been introduced at the fugue point, 
“ He brought them out also.” “ Egypt was glad ” is accom- 
panied throughout on the organ, which I quite agree with. In 
“ He led them through the deep” he uses the organ only to 
reinforce the march of the principal subject, omitting it from 
all the florid counterpoint. In “ I will sing unto the Lord "the 
chief use made of the organ is to emphasise the canto fermo, 
also to fill in the harmony in full passages for both choruses ; 
the florid counterpoint is omitted. I cannot understand why 
he writes Organ all through for the chorus “ Thy right hand, 
O Lord,” which is not of a character to require it ; still less 
can I understand the manner of its use in the short chorus 
“ And in the greatness of Thine excellence,” where, at the 
words “ Thou hast overthrown,” he writes successions of full 
chords in quavers fortissimo for both hands, even the pedal 
note being sustained : — 

That will never do. The organ part to “ And with the 
blast ” is very good and very carefully considered. He 
introduces it first merely to sustain a long note, the fifth in 
the harmony ; this effect is repeated again in a similar 
passage in another key ; at the imitation point, “ The waters 
were gathered,” the organ takes up the parts with the voices. 
At one point he introduces an accompanying figure in contrary 
motion to the violins, crossing them : — 


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In “ The people shall hear ” the organ plays the harmony 
with the voices at their first entry, but in the latter part, 
“ till Thy people pass over,” the organ is chiefly employed, very 
effectively, to sustain the fundamental note only of the 
harmony on the pedal, without interfering in any way with 
the vocal passages. In several of the solo airs the organ is 
introduced in the accompaniments ; curiously enough, in the 
uninteresting air “ Their land brought forth frogs” the organ 
plays sustained harmonies in the opening symphony, where, 
I think, it is out of place ; but in the accompaniment to “ Thou 
didst blow,” which is rather in organ style, the organ has a 
separate part filling in the harmony in a very effective manner. 
One of the best treatments, I should have mentioned, is in 
the chorus “ He sent a thick darkness,” where the organ part 
is confined entirely to sustaining the bass of the harmonies on 
soft 32-ft. and i6-ft. stops, giving a dark colouring all through, 
without interfering with the voice parts. 

To bring the subject to a practical test which may afford 
matter for discussion, let me briefly suggest what I think 
should be the employment of the organ in ‘‘ The Messiah,” the 
best known and, as I still consider it, the greatest of oratorios.* 

I hope I shall not shock you by saying that I should 
accompany the Introduction of the overture with the organ ; 
not loud — Great diapasons first, and Dulciana and Gedact 
with a Bourdon pedal in the repeat. This is in accordance 
with the principle before suggested, of introducing the organ 
where the music is of a specially grave and religious character. 
In spite of the fact that these introductory movements in most 
of Handel’s overtures are, in regard to form, on the model of 
Lulli’s operatic overtures, I maintain that the Introduction 
to “ The Messiah” has a peculiar solemnity and pathos fitting 
the subject of the work, and with which the organ is entirely 
in keeping. In the fugue I would only introduce the organ 
to hold on the bass note twice where it is a holding note 
through several bars, and perhaps to strengthen the bass and 
the harmony at the passage eight bars before the close : — 

* I should like to say that in these suggestions I am not merely following 
the lead of Mendelssohn's suggestions in “Israel," as this portion of my 
paper, though it comes last, was in fact written first, and before I bad 
studied Mendelssohn’s organ part to " Israel." 

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The Function of the Organ. 115 

and then playing the full harmony on it in the final bars after 
the pause, in order to end with the same combination with 
which the overture commenced ; but even here not loud ; 
not more than Diapasons and Principals at most. In the 
recitative and air following the organ is silent (at least if you 
are using Mozart’s accompaniments, which are an ample 
filling in) ; in the chorus “ And the Glory ” the organ not to 
be touched till the entry of the canto fermo phrase in the bass 
“ For the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it,” a special 
feature to be put in by the Pedal reeds. To neglect this 
opportunity of empasising this chant phrase, which is the real 
raison d'itre of the chorus, by means of the organ, is simply 
throwing away a grand opportunity of musical expression. 
In the chorus “ and He shall purify,” keep the organ to play 
with the chorus only in the passages at the words ‘‘ that they 
may offer,” thus giving a special colouring to a passage 
which stands out with a special meaning ; to neglect this is 
another opportunity lost. In the chorus “ O thou that 
tellest,” the organ may be introduced to sustain the chord of 
the tonic seventh four bars before the end of the chorus part, 
playing the harmony with them to the close, but not loud — 
only enough, so to speak, to fill in the interstices, and dropping 
it the moment the voices cease. In “For unto us ” keep the 
organ for the passage “ Wonderful, Counsellor,” &c., each 
time it recurs, and here is one of the exceptional cases when 
the organist may perhaps play nearly as loud as he pleases ; 
you can hardly have too much here. After the last 
recurrence keep the organ up to the close of the chorus, but 
not nearly so loud ; indeed, it is the custom with conductors 
to treat the finsd chords to the words “ The Prince of Peace” 
piano, though there is no authority for it. 

In the chorus “Glory to God” keep the organ for the 
passages “ and Peace on Earth,” except that after its last 
recurrence I would bring in the organ at the chords which 
alternate with the phrase for the sopranos alone on the word 
“ Goodwill ” — 





Org. &c. 


(^^1 - - ■■ 

and then keep the organ playing with the chorus through 
the remaining six bars. The chorus “ His yoke is easy ” is 
better without any organ till bar 38 and the two following 
bars, where the light measure of the chorus is interrupted by 
I 2 

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The Function of the Organ. 

a graver and more sustained passage, and then drop it again 
till bar 46 to the end, where the same grave character 
is resumed. The general character of this chorus is too light 
and delicate to be weighted with the organ. 

“ Behold the Lamb ” : organ throughout, but kept very soft 
in the opening and closing symphonies. 

“ Surely He hath borne ” : organ to support the vocal 
harmonies, but with Diapason tone only; anything louder 
interferes with the effect of the orchestral accompaniment. It 
may be put in rather louder at “ He was bruised,” where the 
orchestral figure is dropped. 

“ And with His stripes ’’ : organ throughout. Full to 15th. 
It holds the fugue together and gives it greater firmness and 
substance, and this is a chorus in complete organ style. 

“All we like sheep”: no organ till the slow passage at 
the close, and there only 16, 8, and 4- ft. stops ; reduced, 
of course, in the five closing bars. 

“ He trusted in God ” : no organ ; this is a fierce chorus of 
blasphemers, in which the organ is quite out of place. For 
its full dramatic effect, it ought to be taken faster than it 
generally is. 

“ Lift up your heads ” : organ not till bar 19, where 
“ Lift up your heads ” is first introduced by altos, tenors and 
basses, and then only Diapasons. At the following passage, 
“ and the King of Glory,” the organ should only sustain the 
C, and the F in the succeeding similar passage in F ; it 
should not interfere with the light vocal phrase. I would 
introduce the organ again in bars 30 and 32 (Diapasons only, 
still), and after that I think we may accompany the voices 
with Full to 15th to the end ; and at bar 55, where the soprano 
phrase is answered by the rest of the chorus, we might put 
on more power, but not “jumping” the separate quavers— it 
should be syncopated : — 

The Lord of Hosts, the Lord of Hosts, 

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“ Let all the Angels,” which is in organ style, may be 
accompanied on the organ (Full to 15th), except the closing 

In “ The Lord gave the word ” the unison passage might 
be reinforced by organ Reeds (8-ft.), but the remainder of the 
chorus is too hurried and bustling in character for organ 

“ Their sound is gone out ” : enter with the organ on the 
B flat in bar 7, and play through to the end with the voices, 
but not doubling the violin passages. 

“ Let us break their bonds ” : only a long pedal G at 
bar 34 and the three following bars, and a similar pedal C at 
bars 44, 45. 

“ Hallelujah.” It is usual to start off with the organ at 
once in this, just to make more noise, which is a very 
commonplace proceeding. Keep the organ for the 
introduction of the unisonal canto fermo “ For the Lord God,” 
where it may be ff, and drop it again at the detached 
“ Hallelujahs ” following. These are exclamations, and the 
genius of the organ is not exclamatory. Similarly, in the 
working out of this jxjrtion, the organ only concerns itself 
with the canto fermo, the Pedal reed accompanying it where 
sung by the basses and tenors, the Solo reeds (if you have 
themj where sung by the tenors and altos. “ The kingdoms 
of this world have become," accompanied softly on the organ; 
“ the Kingdoms of our Lord ” in full chords, but not loud 
enough to drown the voices. The following fugue point, 
“ and He shall reign,” accompanied throughout on Full to 15th. 
Where the sopranos begin their long holding notes, “ King of 
kings,” &c., I should be rather disposed to hold those on 
in octaves on the Solo reeds, unless the insertion of the lower 
octave is considered an objection. Full harmonies at the 
point where the whole chorus enters with “ King of kings,” 
but again do not drown the voices. The following fugue 
point on Full to 15th. The D for basses and tenors, “ King 
of kings,” reinforced on the Solo reeds. At the succeeding 
passage, where the principal subject is sung by basses against 
the rest of the chorus, bring out that subject on the Pedal 
reeds, not touching the organ otherwise. This passage 
occurs twice over. The D for the sopranos at “ King of 
kings ” I would again reinforce with Solo reeds in octaves, 
after that leaving the organ alone till the closing slow chords ; 
full harmonies for these, but again not so loud as to drown 
the voices. It is weight that is required, not noise. The 
object throughout is to use a large organ in such a way as 
to bring out special points, not merely to add to the volume of 
sound in an inartistic manner. 

The four short choruses “ Since by man came death," &c., 
can be accompanied throughout on the organ, soft 8-ft stops in 

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the first and third, Full to 15th in the second and fourth, but 
not doubling the violin passages. 

The chorus “ But thanks be to God,” which we are 
unfortunately never allowed to hear now,* would for the most 
part do better without the organ, but there is one nice little 
point to be made out of it. The main subject of the chorus 
is kept up to the words “ Thanks be to God which giveth us 
the victory”; but twice in the chorus, as well as at the close, 
the words ” Through our Lord Jesus Christ " are introduced 
as a separate phrase, leading in each case to a full close. 
Introduce the organ, in full chords but not loud, in those 
passages, and in those only, and you give a very solemn and 
suitable emphasis to them. 

In ” Worthy is the Lamb ” the Largo would of course be 
accompanied by full harmonies on the organ ; the passage 
“ to receive power ” I think is better without it. In 
“ Blessing and honour ” there are no points to be made by 
the introduction of the organ ; you must either leave it alone 
or play it all through as a sort of background ; but I think it 
is better left alone (except for the three final bars of Adagio) 
both in regard to the character of the music and also to 
contrast with the “ Amen,” which is in pure organ style 
throughout. While on the subject I should like to take the 
opportunity of saying that I am convinced that Handel's 
intention in the “Blessing and honour” chorus is entirely 
misunderstood by modern conductors and audiences. It is 
always taken as if it were Allegro, and were intended as a 
kind of brilliant wind-up. I do not believe Handel had any 
such idea. He composed this oratorio not only as a musician 
but as a man of deep religious feeling, as (in spite of his 
Anglo-German expletives) he undoubtedly was, and he marked 
that chorus Larghetto, and I believe he intended it to give 
the idea of a solemn and sublime hymn of praise sung by 
vast multitudes. That is the intention of the succession of 
reiterated notes in the theme ; that is the meaning of such a 
passage as the sopranos have on the word “ Glory ” : — 

Sing that slowly, and it expresses a sublime idea of choral 
music ranging over great spaces, whereas in the way it is 
usually taken it only sounds as if the sopranos were practising 
their scales ; and the conclusion, with the running passages 

♦ It was given at the Handel Festival performance, since this paper 
was written. 

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for the basses and tenors, becomes a mere scramble, which 
it is always painful to me to listen to. Let any conductor 
break through custom, and take that chorus at the speed 
implied by Handel’s Larghetto, and people will perhaps 
discover that it is a much more sublime conception than they 
had any idea of before. 

This is a digression, but I could not help it. The “ Amen” 
chorus, on the other hand, is sometimes injured by being 
taken rather too slowly. It should be accompanied on the 
organ all through (except the violin episodes, of course), but 
not Full organ, and no Pedal reed till you come to the dominant 
pedal twelve bars from the end — then it may be introduced. 

I have said nothing, for the sake of brevity, about the 
possible uses which might be made of the organ in the 
accompaniments to some of the solos. It depends very much 
on whether Mozart’s accompaniments are used or not ; if 
they are, there is not much left for the organ to do. When 
I was a boy I remember it was advertised as a special 
attraction that “ The Messiah ” would be given withMozart’s 
accompaniments ; I see it is now advertised as a special 
attraction that it will be given without them ; that is our 
latest shibboleth. I think they are an addition to the score 
which Handel himself would have enjoyed, though no doubt 
it is interesting at times to have the work exactly as he left 
it. But in the accompaniments as arranged by Best for 
Novello’s octavo edition there are some suggestions for 
additional organ passages in the accompaniments to some of 
the solos which, whether one agrees with them all or not, 
are at any rate worth consideration. 

There is, finally, the rather difficult question (likely to be 
a “ vexed ” one), Who is to decide where and how the organ 
is to be used, the conductor or the organist ? I do not know 
what the practice usually is ; the only time I ever heard a 
conductor give an order to the organist at rehearsal was to 
say “ Do not touch the organ till you come to that long C in 
the bass; that C is yours, and you make it.” In spite of 
Mendelssohn’s pencilled directions about “ St. Paul,” his 
words in the preface to “ Israel,” that some people might find 
it difficult to extemporize an organ part, seem rather to imply 
that he regarded the organist as having a free hand in the 
matter. On abstract grounds I should say it certainly rested 
with the conductor, but then the conductor ought to have 
more knowledge of and more sympathy with the organ than 
I am afraid orchestral conductors generally have. Perhaps 
the best way would be for conductor and organist to go 
through the work together and agree on a scheme, with a 
certain mutual respect for each other’s perceptions. An 
organist who enters in an intellectual spirit into the work 
would probably be able to make valuable suggestions which 

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a conductor would be wise to accept. But I should leave 
the conductor a power of veto ; the right of ruling “ I do not 
wish for the organ at such a point ” ; (though he will 
probably often be wrong) ; and, what is perhaps even more 
important, the power to say “ you are playing too loud” ( in 
which he will probably often be right). Considering the 
formidable scale and power of modern concert-room and 
town-hall organs, it is hardly to be contemplated that an 
organ player of robust views should be allowed to wield this 
weapon at his single discretion. As Shakespeare puts it — 

It is excellent 

To have a giant’s strength, but it is tyrannous 
To use it like a giant." 


The Chairman. — Ladies and gentlemen. Our first duty 
is to record a very hearty vote of thanks to our lecturer for his 
capital Paper. (Carried.) This Paper has been a highly 
suggestive one. I am glad to hear that our lecturer considers 
the pure organ style to be a contrapuntal one. I think 
there can be no doubt that this view is correct. The organ 
is never heard to greater advantage than in some composition, 
like a fugue, which consists of a great deal of part-intricacy. 
We must not forget that the organ is a mechanical instru- 
ment, and as such it cannot compete with the orchestra. We 
organists are finding this out. For instance, at the Albert 
Hall Sunday afternoon concerts the organ solos are being 
reduced in number and length. People nowadays will 
hardly tolerate an organ arrangement of an orchestral work 
being played in the presence of the orchestra. And very 
rightly too. The lecturer spoke of a work of Mozart’s in 
which the organ was used. I remember that was played 
many years ago (in the early “eighties") by Dr. Sawyer at 
the Royal College of Organists. There are several of these. 
They are very interesting in their way, but I believe the 
organ for which Mozart wrote was what we should call 
a small chamber organ. I was rather disappointed to 
find that in speaking of works for organ and orchestra 
Mr. Statham made no allusion to the two organ concertos of 
Prout. They are well-written works, the first especially is 
remarkably good. There are many points of interest in it 

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which I think are not to be met with in other works of the 
same kind. I have never heard it performed with the 
orchestra, but I used to play the organ part myself ; it is not 
very easy. Front’s second concerto is, I believe, not yet 
published. I once heard him play the organ part on the 
pianoforte at his house, and it struck me as being a rather 
attractive work. I believe it has been performed by 
Mr. George Riseley in the Colston Hall, Bristol. Also, unless 
I am very much mistaken, Guilmant has written some works 
for organ and orchestra. I am not sure whether his first 
sonata was written for that combination originally or after- 
wards arranged for it. Then we must not forget that the 
organ was certainly first used as an accompaniment to the 
voice. This may be considered as its most important use 
even now. Its best stops — those which we consider to be 
purely “ organic ”• — are those which have a vocal quality of 
tone, like the diapasons, for instance. There is nothing in the 
orchestra that can compare with this particular tone-quality. 
In Sullivan's “ Golden Legend” there is a very fine use made 
of the organ. I remember hearing the first London perform- 
ance of this work at the Albert Hall under the direction of 
Sir Joseph Barnby, with Sir John Stainer at the organ. 
There is a fine solo for it, as a prelude to the hymn, Nocte 
Surgentes. And in the last chorus Sir John used to get a 
grand crescendo efifect. He never used the organ so as to 
overpower the voices ; he always seemed instinctively to 
realize the exact amount of tone required. It is some time 
since I looked at the score of “ Elijah ” ; but I fancy there is a 
written organ part in places like “ Through darkness riseth 
light,” and elsewhere. And then Handel himself, surely, has 
an important organ part in his “Ode on St. Cecilia’s Day” 
{“ But oh, what art can teach ”), and I think also in 
“ II Pensieroso ” (“ There let the pealing organ blow ”). In the 
performance of Bach’s “Passion” at St. Paul’s Cathedral the 
organ is certainly used with charming effect in the solos, and of 
course in the choruses as well, especially in the scene of the 
Institution of the Last Supper. In the old days at Cambridge 
University all Mus. Bac. exercises were written for strings 
and organ. The Mus. Bac. exercise itself has been done 
away with since then ; but the old regulations certainly gave 
young composers an opportunity for showing their apprecia- 
tion of the organ, and especially of the manner in which it can 
be combined with strings. Coming to more modern uses of 
the organ, I was present the other day at a fine performance 
of Elgar’s “ Dream of Gerontius ” and was very much struck 
with the use of the organ there, especially in the Chorus of 
Demons. One did not notice this particular organ part at the 
Hereford Festival, because a very small organ was then 
used ; but at the Alexandra Palace there were some really 

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startling eflFects produced from the organ, which did not 
suggest anything religious — quite the contrary. That was 
an amusing story of the lecturer’s about the English organist 
who played something very secular, which was highly 
appreciated. Dr. Turpin told me that in his younger days at 
Nottingham he played the overture to William Tell after 
Service, and it was greatly appreciated by the congregation 
both lay and clerical. He was asked what it was, and he 
did not like to say ; but a priest, who was standing by him, 
mildly suggested that it was a beautiful Miserere by a rising 
Italian composer. I am sure we were deeply interested in 
the lecturer's suggestions for the use of the organ in Handel’s 
“Messiah.” I think his idea as to the use of the organ in the 
Overture is particularly excellent. That opening slow move- 
ment seems to have been written with the idea of the organ 
in view, even organ without orchestra. Surely Mozart’s 
accompaniments were meant to take the place of Handel’s 
improvised organ accompaniments — at least, I have always 
understood so. We can hardly imagine the organ being 
very extensively used when Mozart’s accompaniments are 
played. The lecturer said something about Best’s edition of 
the “ Messiah ” being the latest. I had an idea that there was 
a later one by Professor Prout, prepared, I believe, after the 
death of Mr. Best. I cordially agree with Mr. Statham that 
the organ might very well be used at the words “ Wonderful ! 
Counsellor ! ” especially when we know what the Yorkshire 
voices are like. Against such vocal intensity, any amount of 
organ tone would not be thrown away. I have always had 
the idea that organ reeds do not mix well with the orchestra. 
They certainly do not mix well with the brass instruments. 
I remember on one occasion playing at the Royal Albert Hall 
under the conductorship of Sir Arthur Sullivan. There was 
a large number of brass bands, and we were performing his 
“ Onward, Christian soldiers.” I began modestly, I think 
with Great to 15th, and could not hear a single note from the 
organ. I went on increasing the tone till I could hear some- 
thing from the instrument I was playing. After the rehearsal 
Sir Arthur said, “ I want to say a word to you. Don’t use 
those dreadful reeds.” “ But,” I said, “ I could not hear 
them.” “ Well,” said he, “ I could ! Take my advice, and 
do without them.” Therefore I am not prepared to endorse 
the suggestion that the solo reeds should be used in Handel’s 
Hallelujah Chorus. As a general rule I think organ reeds do 
not help the voices very much. There is nothing for that 
purpose like the flue work, the tone-quality of which is itself 
vocal in character. These are just a few rough notes that I 
made as the Paper proceeded, but I shall be very pleased if 
someone else will give us the benefit of his views on any of 
the points raised in this most suggestive Paper, 

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The Rev. S. E. L. Spooner Lillingston. — I should like to 
mention one chorus of Handel’s where the organ can be used 
with excellent effect ; I mean the chorus in “J udas Maccabaeus,” 
“ We worship God, and God alone.” I should also like to 
mention two works in which some indication of an organ 
part is found in the score; one is in Mendelssohn’s 
“Lobgesang,” “Let all flesh magnify,” and the other is the 
concluding part of that wonderful Ode of Sir Hubert Parry’s, 
“ Blest pair of Sirens.” 

Mr. Southgate. — The question of organ and orchestra is 
one on which a great deal has been written and a good deal 
more might be said. I do not think I am the only old 
organist who has come to the conclusion that the two do 
not unite well, or only very rarely ; the reason is clearly the 
question of temperament and tuning. In the case of the 
orchestra we have practically perfect tuning ; because though 
the wind instruments have fixed keys our players can by 
manipulating the lips or by duplicate fingerings play perfectly 
in tune. We know the organ is not in tune : it cannot be so, 
because every instrument with a fixed set of keys must have 
the intervals equally satisfactory for every scale. However 
there are some parts of the organ that seem to go fairly well 
with the orchestra, and those are the very registers that our 
Chairman has indicated — the diapasons, and those beautiful 
flue stops which accord so well with the voices. But when 
you come to the reeds and mixtures the difficulty is felt. 
I think the reason is that the reeds are more penetrating in 
character and there is no yielding to temperament. Moreover, 
the overtones which they give out are very prominent, — in 
the harmonium they are really offensive. I believe that is 
one of the strong disturbing elements which prevent the 
perfect unison of the organ and orchestra. Our lecturer 
supplied an illustration of where the organ should be used, 
and where it should not, which seems sound and possibly 
very poetical. He thought it might be used to accompany 
the Christians’ songs, but not those of the dreadful heathens — 
whether he would suggest that they might be accompanied with 
tamtams, cymbals and the like I do not know. But on those 
lines it seems to me there W’ould be some rather awkward 
difficulties. Let me cite that chorus “ Fixed in His everlasting 
seat.” There you have the worshippers of Jehovah, and then 
those of Baal. They sing their phrases separately, and then 
join together, each party praising their own deity. I do not 
see how the plan of letting the worshippers of Jehovah have 
the benefit of the organ, and silencing it for the others could 
be worked. I just mention this to show that we cannot have 
set rules in such matters. Two interesting tales have been 
told of peculiar voluntaries which are sometimes heard, not 
in connection with the Church of England. May I add a 

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third ? I was in Spain during the Carlist Revolution. It was 
at the time a very difficult thing to get into the country, and 
still more difficult to get out. However, I managed to get in. 
And I remember visiting the curious old Moorish town of 
Fuenterrabia, on the mountain overlooking the river Biddasoa. 
I arrived there on Sunday morning and went into the 
cathedral. They were all under arms expecting an attack 
from the Carlists every minute. I remember the figure of the 
Virgin was dressed in black crape, and everything was 
exceedingly solemn ; but at the end of the service, as the 
people were going out, the organist played the “ Blue Danube 
Waltzes.” What a choice for an out-voluntary at such a 
serious time ! 

Mr. CoBBETT. — With regard to secular music in churches, 
I might mention that all that kind of thing has found a very 
active opponent in no less a person than His Holiness Pope 
Pius X. He has used his authority for the exclusion of all 
music from the Church Services except that of the most 
absolutely ecclesiastical type. 

Mr. Southgate. — Does that apply to voluntaries also ? 

Mr. CoBBETT. — Certainly. 

Dr. Hinton. — Referring to the remarks just made, I scarcely 
think that the difference of temperament counts for so much. 
The orchestra and the voices essentially render tempered 
intervals. I can only admit that they modify the 3rds a bit — 
when they have the opportunity — and incline to think that 
they very seldom modify the 5ths at all. One frequently 
hears a quartet of singers finish on the tempered chord, but 
before the sound dies away the third invariably falls into 
perfectly just intonation. Separately from these considera- 
tions I most heartily endorse what has been said about reed 
stops. They certainly harmonize only with themselves. 
Diapason tone, on the contrary (and in this term I wish to 
include that of all flue work, 8 ft., 4 ft., and even 2 ft., provided 
it is unimitative in quality, and only plain organ tone), has 
the property of supporting voices without being intrusive, 
which 1 take to be one of the most valuable attributes of the 
organ when that instrument is used with masses of voices. 
Many of us, I suppose, have never heard an organ tuned under 
the old temperament (several voices ; “ I have ”). Provided 
one did not wander much beyond dominant and sub-dominant 
keys, using simple diatonic harmonies, there could be no 
better system, the chords being sweet and luscious as 
opposed to the harsh and imperfect combinations of equal 
temperament. A few days ago I came across an organ 
unequally tempered. It was like a reminiscence of childhood. 

Mr. Casson. — I can endorse what has been said about 
temperament. I think it is generally regarded that tempera- 
ment is a necessity not only for the organ or keyed 

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instruments, but as a scheme that lies at the basis of a 
perfect system of modulation, and without it you cannot get 
that system whether in the organ or violins or anything else. 
I remember having a discussion on the subject with Sir 
Frederick Ouseley, who admitted that he and some other 
players disliked the open strings on the violin, because they 
could not temper them. With regard to the reeds, I think 
we often hear a coarse pedal reed right through the orchestra 
in a most distressing fashion. I should have liked to hear 
something from the lecturer about the use of the doubles, 
because that marks an entirely different treatment of the 
organ both in building and performance, as compared with 
Handel’s day. I believe Mendelssohn in his scoring of 
“ Israel ” marked the doubles very particularly. 

Dr. Warriner. — As a visitor here to-day, there were a few 
points in the lecture which I was very glad to note. One was 
about those compositions of Front’s. I am sorry the lecturer 
did not touch on them. The organ part is written in a most 
suggestive and effective way in all respects. Our Chairman 
has already spoken of the omission to refer to Guilmant’s 
Symphony with Organ. There is also a use of the organ 
indicated, I think, in the “ 1812 ” Overture ; that is another 
instance, I think, of what our lecturer would regard as 
undignified noise. I quite agree with what has been said 
about equal temperament. I think the reason for tempering 
the 3rds is to be found in the demand for extended 
modulation. This consideration explains the reason why 
Berlioz says, “ The orchestra and organ are two kings ; or 
rather one is Emperor, and the other is Pope.” The contrast 
of tone does not, I think, sufficiently explain why they do not 
blend. I rather took it that our lecturer in his reference to 
the solo reeds was not suggesting that they should be 
employed in chords, but merely to double the voice parts in 
single notes. Another point was that our lecturer spoke of 
the early use of the organ to support the orchestra. May not 
that have been due to the shortcomings of the chorus in those 
days ? With regard to Handel’s use of the organ, I think I 
am right in saying that he sometimes did write out a part for 
the organ. In the Overture to “Saul,” for instance, there is a 
very important obbligato organ part ; and I think the part to 
which our lecturer took exception was indicated by Handel 
himself. Of course another reason for the difficulty of com- 
bining orchestra and organ with good effect is to be found in 
the fact that very few organists can hear what they are 
doing. The organist is so placed that he cannot hear the 
organ when the orchestra is playing. I quite agree with 
Dr. Pearce on this. One other little point which I noted was 
that the lecturer spoke about “They loathed to drink” as 
really an organ fugue. I think, if I remember rightly, it was 

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a harpsichord fugue. I quite sympathise with the lecturer 
in his protest against the too rapid tempi at which some of 
Handel’s choruses are galloped through. One other point 
only and I have done. Our lecturer seemed to suggest that 
it was a case of Emperor and Pope with regard to the organist 
and conductor. I rather fancy from experience that the 
conductor who is worth his salt will insist on the right to 
decide the question as to whether the organ is used too much 
or too little; and the mere fact that he is surveying the tout 
ensemble from the front rather than the back (as is the 
organist) should make him the best judge. 

Mr. J. E. Matthew. — With regard to the last point 
mentioned by Dr. Warriner I can tell a little anecdote. 
There was a rehearsal at Exeter Hall, when Brownsmith was 
at the organ, and Costa was conducting. Mr. Brownsmith 
was using a great deal more organ than suited Sir Michael. 
So he just walked across the orchestra, and pushed in a 
number of stops. He did not wait to see what stops they 
were, so the result may be imagined. 

Mr. John E. West. — With regard to Elgar’s works, I think 
you said you were not sure how far he had marked his effects. 
I can tell you he is most exact in that respect ; his registration 
is most carefully marked, and very original effects he gets — 
still more in the “ Apostles," I think, than in the “ Dream of 

Mr. Southgate. — May I add one modern instance of the 
combination of organ with orchestra, that is an organ 
concerto by Kotzebue. 

Mr. West. — There is also a very fine one by Rheinberger. 

Dr. Hinton. — It might be interesting to know what is the 
practice of organists with regard to the use of the doubles in 
accompanying choral works. 

Mr. Statham. — I am sorry I omitted to mention Prout’s 
Concerto. I never heard it, though I did know of its 
existence. But I must remind you that the subject of my 
lecture was “ The Function of the Organ in accompanying 
Choral and Orchestral Works,” so that I did not give so 
much attention to Organ Concertos. Of course I quite agree 
that Mozart’s accompaniments were introduced to supply 
the want of Handel’s organ part. As to the reeds, I 
never suggested playing solo reeds in harmony with the 
chorus. I only thought that in the Hallelujah Chorus the 
solo reed might be used to give greater force to the unison 
passage. I said I did not feel very sure about it. 
I think myself that the difficulty of combining organ and 
orchestra depends on the different way in which the sound is 
produced. There is so much difference between opening a 
lever to let wind into a pipe and making tone by your own 
direct muscular action. I rather defend my use of the pedal 

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in the Hallelujah Chorus; I thought of it as a means of 
bringing out that subject ; but I might remind you that in 
speaking of the Amen Chorus I said, “ No loud reeds till you 
come to the long holding-note at the end.” Mr. Casson, 
I think, is quite right in thinking that temperament is an 
absolute necessity. I can quite imagine the feeling of the 
gentleman who enjoyed playing on an unequally tempered 
organ ; but I should like to know what key he was playing in. 
(Dr. Hinton ; C, I think.) You remember how Bach wanted 
equal temperament, and Silbermann wanted unequal tempera- 
ment. Bach used to say, “ You tune the organ as you please, 
and I play in what key I please,” and then starting off in Ai>, 
or some such key, he generally drove Silbermann out of the 
church. With regard to the use of doubles, I have of course 
always thought that in playing with 8-ft. and i6-ft. diapasons 
you want more extended harmony than with 8-ft. alone. But 
I think that in accompanying a chorus the great value of the 
doubles is most felt, e.g., in “ Envy, eldest born of Hell,” if 
you introduce at ” Hide thee ” full harmony with the doubles 
you get just the colour required. One speaker seemed to think 
that I objected to the introduction of the organ there. Not 
at all ; I only objected to its being allowed to drown the 
voices. With regard to the question between organist and 
conductor, I certainly think that the conductor is king of the 
situation ; but then I do say that conductors of orchestras do 
not in many cases know very much about the organ, and I 
think the best result would sometimes be obtained if the 
conductor were to take counsel with the organ player. 
A reference was made in the discussion to the organ part in 
Sir Hubert Parry’s “ Blest Pair of Sirens,” which I am sorry 
1 omitted mention of; the fact is I got out the score at the 
British Museum on purpose to look at it, but seeing no stave 
for the organ on the opening page I put it aside again, 
unfortunately, without looking to the end. I have only heard 
the work in execution once, some years ago, and the intro- 
duction of the organ at the close had escaped my memory. 

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May 15, 1906. 

Mrs. henry NEWMARCH, 
In the Chair. 



By Frederick G. Shinn, Mus.D. Dunelm., F.R.C.O. 

When the musical historian of the future comes to review the 
work directly connected with the Art of Music which has 
been achieved in this country during the closing years of the 
nineteenth century and the opening years of the present one, 
amongst that which will be regarded as the most notable and 
the most enduring will, I believe, be the work of our musical 
historians. It is, I think, only necessary to mention two such 
works as “ The Art of Music " and “ The Oxford History of 
Music” to remind you of the valuable contributions which 
have been made in recent years to this department of musical 
literature, to say nothingof the innumerable less comprehensive 
works belonging to the same class, whose authors have focussed 
their attention upon some limited period or concentrated 
their powers of research and criticism upon the work of some 
single composer, or upon the development of the Art in some 
special department. In addition to this permanent evidence 
of the interest which is now taken in the history of music and 
which is revealed by the publication of books upon so many 
aspects of the subject, evidence, less permanent, but hardly 
less convincing, is borne of the same fact by the large 
number of lectures which are given upon different phases of 
the subject. The lectures given upon matters connected with 
the history of music far outnumber those given upon any 
other musical subject, and I think they may even 
possibly outnumber those given upon every other subject put 


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The Study of the History of Music. 

As a result of all this activity in historical research and in 
the dissemination of this kind of knowledge to every grade of 
musically-inclined persons, do we find amongst those who 
study music with more or less seriousness, and certainly with 
a considerable degree of perseverance — do we find many who 
possess accurate and intelligent ideas upon the history of 
music, based upon some fairly comprehensive general 
knowledge of the subject ? Of the immense number of what 
1 may term average music teachers, what proportion do we 
find possesses clear ideas as to the manner in which the 
material and forms of the Art have been built up and developed, 
or of the influence of certain composers in extending the 
range of the material, in perfecting certain musical forms, or 
in revealing in a more definite manner the poetic basis of 
musical composition ? How many know approximately the 
relative and absolute positions in time of the great composers, 
and, as growing out of this, the special work which each has 
achieved in the development of the Art ? Or if I go a grade 
lower in the musical world and ask you to think of those 
young people, chiefly young ladies, who devote so much of 
their energy to practising the pianoforte and to passing local 
examinations, shall I do them an injustice if I say that 
except for a few hazy general notions and a few uncertain 
dates not five per cent, possess any knowledge of the subject 
whatever ? 

So far as my knowledge and experience extends, the study 
of musical history is rarely entered upon until some influence, 
external to the pupil, and, what is of far greater importance, 
external to the teacher also, compels the pupil to enter upon 
its study. That external influence I need hardly say is 
almost always an examination. When, however, the 
historical ice has been broken and the pupil has been 
compelled to dip into the subject to some extent, do we find 
that he, of his own free will, continues his study of the 
subject ? Do we find that after the examination is over and 
the external stimulus removed, he generally returns to the 
study with renewed interest and enthusiasm and, freed from 
the limitations of the syllabus, of specially set books or 
periods and of specially selected composers, sets himself in a 
systematic manner to acquire a real and comprehensive 
knowledge of the history of his Art ? 

Although a certain proportion of musicians, from the love 
of the subject, do continue their historical studies long after 
they have left examination rooms and convocations behind, 
yet by the large majority I believe this subject is rarely 
studied in any systematic manner after the object which 
originally compelled its study has been achieved ; and even 
when examination work has directed its study to certain 
special periods, only a small number of their own free will 

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The Study of the History of Music. 131 

seem anxious to fill up the gaps which have been left, and to 
obtain a complete and comprehensive view of the whole 

In connection with this matter I cannot doubt that a 
question which has often occurred to me must also have 
occurred to many of you — namely, How is it that a subject 
which is so intensely interesting in itself, and in many ways 
so intimately connected with the daily work of both the 
student and the teacher, makes so small an appeal to the 
vast majority of such, or at least makes insufficient appeal 
to induce them to devote any reasonable amount of time to 
its systematic study ? 

I do not assume for one moment that historical studies are 
equally attractive to every musical person, nor do I deny 
that there may be a large number who, while possessing a 
taste for such, are unable to devote much time to their 
pursuit ; but when everything that is possible has been said, 
both to excuse and also to account for the general ignorance 
of the subject, and the indifference to its systematic study 
which prevails amongst the majority of those who either 
entirely or partially devote themselves to the study of music, 
yet there still remains much which is certainly not creditable 
to us in these days when we are not slow to boast about the 
excellence of our musical education or the virtues of our 
musical examinations. 

If I have put my finger upon a weak spot in the 
education of the musical student, let us next consider 
some of the circumstances to which it is due. My 
own experience has proved to me that in the large 
majority of instances, not merely advanced pupils with a 
fairly wide knowledge of music, but young girls who have 
studied the pianoforte only up to the degree of difficulty repre- 
sented by the school examination of the Associated Board, can 
generally be led to take an interest in the subject, provided 
both the matter itself, as well as the manner of presenting it, 
be carefully adapted to their special musical knowledge and its 
limitations. I believe that it is the manner in which this 
subject is so often brought before students rather than 
the matter itself which has repelled them, and created in 
them a feeling of distaste for the subject which in many 
cases is never overcome. In other words, I believe the 
unsatisfactory state of the study is due chiefly to two causes 
—first, to the loose, unmethodical and irrational manner 
in which the subject is generally studied ; and, secondly, 
partly as the cause of this, and partly as a result of this, 
to the superficial way in which the subject is treated in 

That so many find the subject an unattractive one, that they 
only study it when they are compelled to do so, and that they 
K 2 

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The Study of the History of Music. 

relinquish its study at the earliest possible moment, is, I 
believe, principally due to the fact that they largely invert 
the order in which the subject-matter should be studied. 
They enter upon its study at those periods in which not 
merely the music is absolutely unknown to them, but even if 
it were known they could neither understand its special 
idiom nor enter into its spirit : music belonging to periods 
in which they can feel a musical interest (if they ever can) 
only after they have read and studied much that has 
happened in later times, and by the aid of which knowledge 
they can gradually trace the course of the development of 
music, at least to some extent, in a backward direction. The 
musical student when entering upon the study of musical 
history almost invariably starts at Chapter L, and Chapter I., 
as we all know, generally supplies him with much informa- 
tion regarding the mysteries of the early notation, of the 
nature and names of the different modes, of diaphony and 
organum, of Ambrose and Gregory, of Guido of Arezzo, and 
Franco of Cologne, all matters of interest to one who can 
recall and mentally trace the different stages in musical 
development which bridge the gap between Gregory and 
Beethoven, or even Mozart, but matters to which the mind 
of the average pianoforte or violin student supplies absolutely 
no response, because of the distance which separates the 
music with which he is familiar from the music of such times. 
He may read for pages without coming across any fact which 
seems related to, or to throw light upon, his daily work. 
The music about which he is reading in material, in form, 
and in spirit, is too far removed from the music with which 
he is personally acquainted for his imagination to bridge the 
gap. The period to which it belongs is too remote and its 
conditions too unfamiliar to create in him any sympathetic 
response, and he reads his musical history as bare, dead 
facts, which stand isolated and apart from his own personal 
knowledge and experience of music, and with which they 
seem to have no apparent connection or relation. 

How often do we not find the history student succumb to 
the temptation of skipping over many of the earlier chapters 
until he reaches those composers with whose music he is 
familiar, and in any discussion of the form and materials of 
which he is able, at least in some tentative manner, to follow. 
Later on he may possibly return to that part of the book 
which deals with music of an earlier period, but we shall 
rarely find he becomes enthusiastic over the study of the 
history of music of periods with the music of which he is 
ignorant. Take away the influence of examinations and the 
student of musical history naturally gravitates towards the 
study of those composers and those periods with the music 
of which he has personal acquaintance, and he as naturally 

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The Study of the History of Music. 133 

avoids the study of those composers and those periods the 
music of which is an unopened book to him. This is 
the way his instinct leads him when he first enters upon 
the study, and this supplies us with the key, and, I 
believe, the only key, by which the study of the history of 
music may be made not a memorization of names and 
dates, not a cramming of the memory with unorganized facts 
and secondhand opinions, not even merely an interesting 
and attractive subject for reading, but a real and living 
instrument of musical education. 

We have, I believe, in this fact discovered the great 
fundamental principle of guidance which must underlie all 
genuine historical study ; the touchstone by which the 
efficacy of any method must first of all be proved. If the 
study of musical history is to possess real educational value, 
it must be a superstructure reared upon a foundation of 
knowledge of music representative of all the different periods, 
schools and composers to which such historical matter 
relates. If sufficient of this knowledge of music is not 
gained previously to the historical knowledge, a study of the 
music referred to, or at least of representative works illus- 
trating the essential features in the development of the 
musical material and musical forms, must be made side by 
side with the purely historical subject-matter. 

In the history of any Art the facts upon which that history 
must be based are the artistic products themselves. In 
the Art of Music these are musical compositions in the 
various forms, and it seems almost insulting to your musical 
intelligence that I should think it necessary to allude to the 
fact that any description of the historical development of 
musical material, of musical forms, and methods of musical 
expression cannot be intelligently understood unless one is 
familiar with representative examples of such, illustrating 
the different periods ; yet it is because this most obvious 
fact, this fundamental condition of success, is absolutely 
ignored by some of those who set examination papers that so 
much study of history books becomes purely wasted effort. 
That in connection with public examinations of high repute 
periods are set the music of which to the ordinary student is 
absolutely unattainable for study ; and that musical material 
and forms are expected to be discussed and their develop- 
ment traced when the student has probably never had the 
opportunity of studying, or even seeing, a single example of 
such, and of all such facts, the examiner must be perfectly 
well aware. 

In order that you may understand the kind of question to 
which I refer, I will give you a few examples selected from 
recent examination papers, and set in connection with an 
examination in which a large number of the candidates are 

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134 Study of the History of Music. 

school boys and girls, and whose knowledge of music in the 
majority of cases would be limited to an acquaintance with 
some pianoforte or violin music and a few of the best 
known oratorios : — 

(rt) Give a brief history of the early Belgian school of 

{b) Discuss Handel’s borrowings from the music of other 

(c) What is Weber’s position in the history of Opera ? 

(d) What was the influence on Musical Art of the work of 

Guido Aretino ? 

(e) Compare the music of Rossini, Donizetti and Bellini, 

and name their chief works. 

(/) Compare briefly the principles which guided Mozart, 
Beethoven and Weber in writing Operas. 

These are questions which have been set to young 
candidates, the large majority of whom will probably never 
see any specimen of early Belgian music, whose knowledge 
of Handel is probably limited to a slight acquaintance with 
“ The Messiah,” and who are about as qualified to compare 
the music of Rossini, Donizetti and Bellini, or the principles 
underlying the construction of the Operas of Mozart, 
Beethoven and Weber, as they are to compare Hindustani 
and Persian. 

In some of the papers set, one would almost imagine that 
the examiner had carefully framed his questions so as to 
avoid any reference to a composer with whose music the 
candidate would be likely to have some personal knowledge. 
The following complete paper, which is by no means an 
isolated example, seems designed with this end in view : — 

1. What do you know about Goudimel, Marenzio, Carissimi, 

Corelli, C. P. E. Bach ? 

2. Sketch the history of Opera in France. 

3. Mention the principal features in the history of English 

Music between 1650-1700. 

4. Describe the work and influence of Monteverde. 

5. Sketch the condition of Musical Culture in Europe in 

the latter half of the i6th century. 

6. Describe the condition of ecclesiastical music before the 

time of the Council of Trent and the reforms which 

were then instituted. 

In what direction will the knowledge of music possessed by 
the school girl of sixteen or seventeen be of value in 
answering the above questions ? 

Will any of my hearers who have knowledge of the kind of 
questions set in this subject in the majority of examinations 
care to assert that I have overstated my case ? If not, then 

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The Study of the History of Music. 135 

can one be surprised at the little enthusiasm this study 
creates amongst such a large number of musical students, or 
that so few make any effort, not to say sacrifice, to pursue its 
study when, examinations being vanquished, it ceases to 
possess for them, in the way they have been taught to study 
it, either external value or intrinsic interest. . 

It is with the hope of arousing your interest, not in the 
study of musical history itself — as I do not doubt that every 
member of the Musical Association already possesses that — 
but rather in a consideration of the best methods of bringing its 
study before different classes of pupils, and of arousing their 
interest in the subject, that I have brought this subject 
before you to-day, so that we may have an opportunity 
of discussing how such pupils may be led, not only in 
their young student days, but also throughout their life, as 
opportunity permits, to pursue its systematic study upon 
some intelligent and common-sense plan. 

Before we can consider the best methods of teaching any 
special subject, we must arrive at some common ideas as to 
the nature and matter of the subject and also as to the 
purposes for which it is studied. 

First of all then. What do we mean when we speak of the 
history of music ? I suppose to the mind of the ordinary 
musical person the term “ history of music” suggests all kinds 
of information referring to the Art of Music in former times. 
Such information would include particulars of the lives and 
work of the great composers, of the different musical forms 
which have been employed in different periods and the 
historical development of such forms, of the nature of the 
various musical instruments and the changes they have 
undergone from time to time. 

Although these as well as other related matters do, to some 
extent, form part of the history of music, yet a large number 
of people cherish the idea that those matters directly 
connected with the lives of the leading composers make up 
the greatest portion of the subject. Because the history of 
the Art of Music — and also the history of any other Art — 
must be indissolubly bound up with the names of its 
greatest representatives many writers upon this subject 
have fallen into error, and have not properly differentiated 
information which belongs to the biography of the artist 
from that which appertains to the development of his Art. 
This is, perhaps, one of the most treacherous pitfalls in the 
study of the subject. The biography of a composer naturally 
centres around his life and work, but the history of music is 
primarily concerned with the nature and development of the 
material of music and of musical forms, and the employment 
of these for the expression of every form of emotion. A 
comprehensive “ history of music ” will inevitably contain 

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136 The Study of the History of Music. 

some amount of biographical material referring to the greatest 
representatives of the Art, but all such material will be selected 
from the point of view determined by a compwser’s influence 
upon the evolution of the Art, and not from the point of view 
determined by his life and personality. I do not think it can 
be too often or too emphatically stated that it is the study of 
music itself and the changes it has undergone in reaching its 
present condition, that is the chief and fundamental matter 
of study. 

Perhaps next in importance to a knowledge of music itself 
is that knowledge which will enable us to arrange such music 
in chronological order, that is to understand the relative 
order of production of representative musical works, and as 
arising out of this the relative order of those essential facts 
in the development of the art, embodied in such works. This 
implies that we can trace in rough outline those successive 
steps which led from the modal system to the establishment 
of our modern key system, from the genesis of modern music 
to the culmination of the polyphonic period as represented 
by Bach, from polyphonic form to harmonic form as 
represented by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, and 
thence to the modern developments both in form and 
material as illustrated in the works of Wagner, Brahms and 

As naturally arising out of our knowledge of music and 
our power to arrange it in some approximate chronological 
order, we begin instinctively to compare the material, the 
forms and the musical idioms employed in and representing 
different periods, and from such comparison we begin to 
trace the nature and direction of artistic development, to 
observe the nature of those tendencies which have led 
to maturer forms and higher developments, and which have 
ultimately made for progress, as well as those other tendencies 
which have ultimately led to decadence. It is at this stage 
that we recognize, perhaps for the first time, the special 
function of this branch of study, namely, as the particular 
instrument for developing the musical judgment. 

In general education the study of history is that study 
which is employed for developing and training a man’s 
judgment. The study of the history of music has a corre- 
sponding function to perform in the training of the musician. 
The musician studies the history of his Art so that his mind, 
being stored with a knowledge of the past and the lessons 
which it teaches, shall be capable of forming sound judgments 
upon the artistic products and the artistic tendencies of the 
present. This is the chief object of all historical study, 
that we may, by a study of the problems of the past and the 
solutions which each particular age supplied, be more qualified 
to grapple with the problems of our own times. In artistic 

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The Study of the History of Music. 137 

matters this would imply the power to discriminate between 
artistic products which ring true and those of baser metal, 
between those tendencies which make for progress and those 
which lead to decadence, and to give our influence and 
support to the former and our strenuous opposition to the 

I need hardly say that in bringing the subject of musical 
history before young people, one does not think of it as a 
means of encouraging them to give their opinions upon the 
latest musical novelty. In the exercising of the judgment 
we have reached the summit of the building and the goal 
towards which all our historical studies have tended. How 
such a building may be gradually erected upon some 
intelligent plan I shall now endeavour to show you. 

Before we can profitably introduce the study of the history 
of music to a student, it is obvious that a reasonable know- 
ledge of music must be already possessed ; but beyond this, 
provided we judiciously select our material, the subject can 
be made interesting to quite young and very moderately 
advanced students, to whom I have sometimes found its study 
act as an incentive to extend their knowledge of music in 
directions which their ordinary practical studies would not 
necessarily lead them. This “minimum ’’ knowledge of music, 
however, should as far as possible include works representing 
most of the greatest composers, for it is around the student’s 
knowledge of music that from the very outset we weave his 
historical knowledge ; and in the first steps it should be our 
endeavour to give a correct relative prominence to those 
composers who are universally regarded as the greatest. If 
the first skeleton ideas — the foundation stones in the mind of 
the pupil — are arranged in their approximate positions of 
relative importance, it will greatly assist him in securing a 
correct grasp of details, to be filled in later on. 

In these early stages it is a matter worthy of the teacher’s 
consideration as to the extent to which the pupil’s interest in 
the study of music of certain composers may be increased and 
developed, or perhaps, in some cases, excited, by bringing 
before him a general knowledge of their life and work, 
especially when the circumstances of such are at all excep- 
tional and are likely to appeal to the pupil’s sympathy. 
Most of us can remember how the interest of the reading 
lesson at school has often been greatly increased by the 
biographical materials of which it was sometimes composed. 
Such biographical reading lessons are frequently employed to 
lead up to the study of history by bringing before the mind 
of the pupil prominent historical figures, and by arousing his 
interest in them first as personalities, and then in their 
country and the age in which they lived, and eventually in 
the movements with which they were associated. By this 

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138 The Study of the History of Music. 

means landmarks are created in the mind of the pupil, 
around which deeper historical knowledge is afterwards 
gathered. So in the early study of musical history, especially 
in connection with young pupils, we shall generally find that 
the best method is in the first instance to arouse the interest 
of the pupil in the subject by means of short biographies, if 
possible in narrative form, of the greatest of those composers 
with some of whose works they are familiar. 

The mind of the young pupil is rarely capable of forming 
judgments upon the musical material, the musical forms, or 
the methods of musical expression belonging to different 
periods, or even in realising wherein the essential differences 
in such lie ; but he can, and he will, take an interest in the 
personalities of those with whose works he is familiar. He 
can be taught to think of them in correct chronological 
order, and as leading up to one another, and representing 
in some general way the kind of music which belonged to 
different periods, and which therefore represented different ! 
stages in the development of the Art. Such matters, if 1 

judiciously introduced, frequently lead to an increased j 

interest in the study of music and a desire on the part of the ■ 

pupil to fill up gaps in his general musical knowledge by a 
study of other forms of Art, and may also arouse that spark | 

of enthusiasm in the study of musical history which leads in I 

later years to a more thorough and comprehensive study of ^ 

the subject. I may add parenthetically that for this purpose 1 

I always use Sir Hubert Parry’s “ Studies of the Great 
Composers,” and although it covers more ground than I | 
have indicated for young pupils, I do not know a more 1 
suitable book. 

In connection with this, the first stage of the study, I use I 

a very simple chronological chart (Chart I). This chart in its 1 

original form consists of a page of foolscap paper divided into 1 

three main columns. Each column represents 100 years, 1 

and the three columns represent the three latest centuries, 1 

beginning with the years 1600, 1700 and 1800 respectively. j 

Such a chart practically covers the period of modern music, 
and any great composer whose works a pianoforte student is 
likely to study could be placed in such a chart in his correct 
chronological position. The division of this sheet into four 
equal parts by means of thin dotted lines drawn across 
indicates the four quarters of each century. The pupil 
should fill in for himself the names of the representative 
composers (with some of whose works he is familiar) at the 
positions upon the chart of the years of their birth and death. 

I do not wish to suggest that there is anything original in 
this chart, or in either of the other two charts to which I 
shall refer later on. General history is, I believe, invariably 
studied by the aid of time charts, and those which you have 

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THE S^l 

CHART I. — Prelimina. 





BORN. 1 



. - 01 


86 snossaT 

ifi sajXy 

96 suossaq ‘naDon* 

66 preoipuBH^iM^^^K 


i8 •• 

se '• 


{ qDBH 

\ ppuBH 

® •••’{■□ 




66 •* siJ«d C 's^«aos ‘naojn* 

•• Dpnw qojnqo ‘iiaojnj 

• • • • qojnq3 *MOig 

Ui ** ** 'P uaqaiB^ 

•* •• oisnpi qojnq3 'asi^ 

H •• 

•• *p IU1ISSUB^ 

ft, qoaaqo ojuj *poj)ai satioiA 

Bi •• •p''H'»10q3S 

f *• •• UOpUOT Ul 

"" sjjaouoo oiiqn. 


69 ppsao 

IQ p lal^jaqoj j 

6S '• '9 ‘*V ‘P»«l-reos 

•• Dpn)^ qojnqo 'Xa^mnH 

ra { 


SuynbsB]^ poB 

69 •* jsioiioi^ AiQ ‘uosdtoX; 

95 * • • • posooo apin *^oo' 

SS 63jXy jjno; 

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James I. 


25 Charles 1 25 

Commonwealth •• 49 


Political & Social Events. 

Hampton Court Conference^ 04 
Gunpowder Plot . . . . . . 05 

* Mayflower'* sailed .. .. 20 

Laud, Archbishop 


Hampden's dispute | 07 

Puritan martyrs f ‘ 

Long Parliament 

Civil War begins 
Assembly of Divines 

Charles executed 



Literature, Fine Art, Ac. 


.. 02 


.. 04 

“ Macbeth " 

.. 06 

Milton b 

.. 06 

"The Bible," 

Shakespeare d 

.. 16 

" Novum Organum " . . 

.. 20 

.. 26 

Wren 1 t 

Dryden J ^ 

“L'AlIcgro" \ 

.. 31 

Locke b. J • • • . 

“ Comus " .. .. 

.. 34 

“Lycidas" 1 
Ben J onson d.] " 

.. 37 

Isaac Newton b 

.. 42 

Suppression of Plays . . 

.. 46 

Grinling Gibbons b. . . 

.. 48 

Inigo Jones d 

.. 51 

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The Study of the History of Music. 

before you are merely specimens of such, specially framed for 
the study of musical history and which I myself have found 
of distinct value both in teaching others as well as in my 
own studies. The chart immediately before you (No. i) is 
obviously for beginners. The youngest student can make 
such a chart, and understand it when he has made it, and 
the period shown covers the lifetime of every composer 
about whom he is likely to read in these early stages. The 
benefit to be derived from the construction and use of this 
chart by the pupil is that it materially helps him to acquire 
accurate ideas upon two important chronological matters. 
It brings before him in a kind of pictorial way — (i) the 
relative positions of the various composers ; and (2) their 
absolute dates, approximately, by their position upon the 
chart. Both of these matters can be far more easily and 
more securely memorised by this means than by the usual 
way of learning them from a book. 

One benefit which musical students derive from the study 
of the history of music is that it gives them some idea of how 
little they know of music, even of the works of those com- 
posers with many of whose pianoforte compositions they may 
be familiar. The study of the lives of, say, six or eight of the 
greatest composers, including such names as Bach, Handel, 
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann and Mendelssohn, will 
introduce to them by name quite a number of musical forms, 
of which not only young students, but many besides, whose 
musical knowledge and experience has been limited chiefly to 
one branch of music {e.g., pianoforte or violin music), will be 
quite ignorant. While many will probably have heard some of 
the most popular oratorios, and a much smaller number some 
of the more familiar operas, only a few will possess any know- 
ledge of the essential features of such musical forms as the 
Mass, the Overture, the Symphony, the Concerto, and many of 
the forms of chamber-music. And even in connection witli 
such musical forms with which they may be familiar, at least 
by name, such as the Suite — and the Sonata— the Sonata-form 
and the Rondo-form, few will have made any study of their 
special characteristics so as to be able to trace the influence 
of the different composers in the development of such 

In my experience some of the first inquiries which the 
study of musical history provokes are as to the nature of 
the musical forms which a student here reads about for the 
first time, but of which as musical compositions he is entirely 
ignorant. Such inquiries indicate in no uncertain manner 
the directions in which we must now proceed if we would 
encourage the study of this subject upon intelligent lines. 

Some clear ideas should now be acquired upon “ musical 
form ” generally, and also upon the nature and characteristic 

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140 The Study of the History of Music. 

features of the chief representative forms, as well as sufficient 
knowledge of harmony and modulation to make such know- 
ledge intelligible, and to enable the student to recognise the 
difference in the nature of the musical material of 
compositions by Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann 
and Brahms. 

As a description of the various musical forms is supplied 
to the student, one would naturally mention the names (with 
dates) of those composers who have employed such to any 
great extent, and if, when forming our first chart, we have 
been careful to secure a representative list of the greatest 
composers, we shall frequently find that whichever musical 
form we are considering, some of the greatest representatives 
will be included in this first list, at least so far as modern 
music is concerned. 

Amongst the most important names which will not appear 
in the original list will be those chiefly associated with only 
one form of art — as for instance Gluck, Wagner and Verdi, 
whose works are almost entirely operas. In connection with 
the study of each special department of musical art — such as 
Opera, Oratorio, Instrumental music, or its subdivision of 
Clavier and Pianoforte music — a separate chronological chart 
should be constructed, and should be designed so as to include 
the titles and dates of production of the most important works 
in these classes, as thereby the value of such a chart is greatly 
increased. (S« Chart II.) 

Although in the study of these different representative 
musical forms and in the construction of the corresponding 
charts the average student will hardly be familiar with many 
works in any one form, yet he will probably be familiar with 
isolated examples of a large number of musical forms: for 
instance, a few oratorios, some chamber and orchestral music, 
and perhaps one or two operas, and it is desirable that he 
should, as soon as possible, be able chronologically to fix the 
position of such works relatively to that of other music with 
which he is familiar. In other words, that he should now be 
able chronologically to arrange all his musical knowledge. 

At this stage of the study it may be well to rapidly review 
the ground which our imaginary student has covered : — 

(1) He has acquired clear ideas of the chronological 

position of every important composer (with some 
of whose works he is familiar), both absolutely in 
time and also relatively to other composers ; 

(2) He has acquired some general knowledge of musical 

form and of the special nature and characteristics 
of the chief musical forms, and also the names and 
approximate dates of the greatest composers who 
have employed such forms ; 

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The Study of the History of Music. 141 

And (3) He has begun to build up in his mind a general 
historic outline (necessarily very incomplete) which 
indicates both the relative and absolute chrono- 
logical positions of some of the great landmarks 
in the progress of modern music. He begins to 
realize more clearly than he has ever done before 
that his branch of Musical Art is but one amongst 
many other branches, and by no means one of the 
greatest, and although his musical knowledge is 
small and incomplete he has learnt how to 
systematise it from the historical, or at least 
chronological standpoint, and it is gradually 
assuming the character of “ organized ” knowledge, 
which alone can possess any real value in the study 
of the history of music. 

Up to this point we have made the basis of our student’s 
historical studies the music with which he is already familiar, 
and with which he has become familiar in connection with 
his ordinary musical studies and experience. Hitherto we 
have been, as it were, trading upon his musical capital — 
that is, upon his already acquired knowledge of music, 
which has accumulated in a variety of ways and from 
many sources, but with no special idea of illustrating the 
progress of the Art of music or the growth and development 
of any special musical form. We have also seen how this 
knowledge may be organized with a view to assisting him in 
the study of the history of music. It is obvious that if he is 
still to base his studies in musical history upon a knowledge 
of music, he must now enter upon a study of music selected 
with this special end in view. That is, he must proceed to 
fill up the gaps in his present knowledge of music so that 
he can trace in a fairly complete manner either the growth 
and development of the Art generally, or at least of some of 
the most important forms. 

Some of the gaps which have thus to be filled up may not take 
him far from the beaten track of a liberal scheme of practical 
study, but on the other hand there are many works that 
will have to be studied, which, because of the progress of the 
Art, have lost their purely musical interest and value and 
have ceased to hold any recognized position in a scheme of 
practical study. 

It is in deciding the course which he should now adopt that 
not only may there arise legitimate differences of opinion 
amongst those who teach this subject, but quite apart from 
such differences the special circumstances of the student and 
the advantages which he may, or may not, possess for 
studying music of all kinds and of all periods must partly 
influence us in coming to a decision. 

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142 The Study of the History of Music. 

Viewed generally there seem to be two main directions, 
either of which it is possible to take : — 

First . — He may proceed to study the development of the 
Art generally, starting from its early beginnings and proceed- 
ing step by step chronologically until the present time is 
reached, and taking into consideration all of the forms in 
which it appears. 

Second . — He may select some important department of 
Musical Art, as, for instance, instrumental music, associated 
chiefly with, say, clavier and pianoforte ^music, and make 
a detailed and comprehensive historical study of this 

Each of these courses possesses certain advantages as 
well as corresponding disadvantages. To study musical 
history as a whole is the method of the text-books, and 
also the one which must be adopted when preparing for 
nearly every examination. Such a method implies bring- 
ing before the mind some kind of a picture, which at 
least aims at being complete, of the general progress of 
music ; but, on the other hand, it is not possible for the 
ordinary student to pursue his historical studies in such a 
comprehensive manner upon the lines I have previously 
indicated because of the difficulty, or I think I may say the 
impossibility, of obtaining sufficient music for study. In 
order to be able to study compositions illustrating the 
development of the different forms of Art which have 
flourished since about 1600 — that is, the period covered since 
the modal system began to crumble away before the first 
tentative inroads of modern tonality — requires a musical 
library of resources far beyond that which the large majority 
of musical students have at their disposal, even when they 
study at some music school or college, while to study the 
history of music without also being able to study musical illus- 
trations representing the various stages of development of the 
different forms can have no influence whatever upon the 
musical judgment of the student. 

With regard to the second method suggested, of concen- 
trating the attention chiefly on one department, the amount 
of music to be studied in connection with a single department 
of the Art is by no means small, but it is incomparably less in 
bulk, and in such a department as that of the clavier or the 
pianoforte is, on the whole, far more accessible for study 
than the scores of early operas and oratorios. 

The student by directing his attention towards the 
historical development of some of the chief musical forms 
is entering upon genuine historical study in its highest sense. 
It is by selecting compositions in some special form and of 
various periods, and by a critical study of their form, their 

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The Study of the History of Music. 143 

material, and its treatment, and by endeavouring to appraise 
their value as contributing to the progress and development 
of this special form of Art, that the musical judgment is 
trained and developed, especially when we have before us the 
carefully considered opinions of a Parr}', a Hadow, or a Fuller 
Maitland, and are able to study such works with the help of 
their reasoned analyses and in the light of their wide learning 
and research. 

On the other hand, the getting-up of some text-book upon 
musical history, the study of the writer’s opinion upon music 
of which both the nature of the material and form are 
absolutely unknown to the student, the learning of the 
writer’s opinion of the influence which this music had upon 
other music, of which, again, he is equally ignorant, and so 
on ad infinitum, cannot possibly possess any real educational 
value or in any respect develop a man’s musical judgment. 
At the best it may give him some information which an 
examiner thinks he ought to possess, and which he 
therefore believes to be valuable ; at the worst it makes him 
a musical prig. 

In selecting some special department for historical 
study it is but natural that in the first instance one would 
choose that with which one is already most familiar — for 
instance, the pianoforte student would choose clavier and 
pianoforte music ; the violin student, music for string instru- 
ments alone, and also in combination with the pianoforte. By 
so doing there would be fewer gaps to fill up, and the student 
would also understand and be able to trace the development 
of the special kind of technique employed in connection with 
such instrument. As a part of such study there would 
naturally be references to the nature and peculiarities of 
the special musical instrument or instruments concerned, 
and the development of such at different periods. It is 
obvious that the characteristics of any special department 
can only be intelligently understood by one who has made 
a study, not only of that form of Art but of the particular 
means of expression employed in connection with it. Thus, 
to trace the growth and development of the symphony 
implies a knowledge of the nature and development of the 
instruments which at different periods have been employed 
in combination, of the gradual enlargement and extension of 
such combinations, and of the eventual selection of certain 
instruments to form the basis of the modern orchestra, also 
a knowledge of the growth of a sense of orchestral colour, 
and of the employment of various combinations of instru- 
ments to produce varieties of such colour. Or if we take 
Opera or Oratorio, in addition to a study of the develop- 
ment of the orchestra employed for accompaniments and also 
in separate movements, we must also study the development 

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144 Study of the History of Music. 

of vocal music both in solo movements, in concerted vocal 
music, and also in chorus, as well as the combination of both 
vocal and orchestral forces to suit the requirements of every 
form of dramatic situation which may arise. 

It is perfectly clear that to study the history of the 
symphony, the opera, or the oratorio, if such study is to have 
any influence in the direction of widening our sympathies or 
maturing our judgment, is by no means a simple matter. 
Yet how many school-girls enter upon such study simply 
that they may thereby make up the required number of 
subjects for some public examination, and because they find 
that Brown on “The History of Modern Music ” is shorter 
than Jones on “ Botany,” and less abstruse than Robinson 
on “ Political Economy.” 

I need hardly draw your attention to the fact that the 
study of musical history in its most complete and compre- 
hensive manner I have yet to deal with. I started by 
showing you how the beginnings of the study are best 
approached through the paths of biography and chronology 
directly connected with music with which one is familiar. 
How this naturally led up to a desire to know about the 
nature of the chief musical forms, and from thence to a study 
of the historical development of such forms in departments 
with which we are most familiar seemed a natural step. It 
now remains for me to bring before you some rough ideas as 
to the suitable methods of study in connection with what I 
believe to be the highest conception of musical history. 

If we admit that music is the expression of a man’s deepest 
emotion, of his innermost nature or self, we must also admit 
that every circumstance and every condition which is 
sufficiently strong enough to leave some kind of impress 
either upon his spiritual or emotional nature or upon his 
intellectual nature will be reflected in his artistic work. It 
is true that some creative artists are creatures of their 
environment to a far larger extent than others. That is to 
say, some artistic products reflect more strongly the character 
of their age and the nationality and the circumstances of the 
life of the composer than other works whose composers 
possessed a greater and more universal genius and a stronger 
individuality, but no man is altogether free from this kind of 
influence. It may influence the nature of his utterance and 
his manner of expressing what is within him, or it may 
largely determine the directions which his work shall take 
by supplying favourable opportunities for work in certain 
definite directions and upon certain lines, and withholding 
opportunities and encouragement for work in certain other 

From this it is but a step farther to look for the reflection 
of every great movement — social, political, religious and 

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The Study of the History of Music. 145 

intellectual — which has taken place since music has held a 
prominent place in our civilized life in the music of the 
corresponding period. That we shall not look in vain is 
proved by reference to some of the great landmarks of the 
world’s history. Those two great uprisings of the human 
mind which are known as the Reformation and the 
Renaissance led to the overthrow of the Modal s}'stem and to 
the gradual development of modem scales and modern 
harmony — in short, of everything which we understand as 
modern music. The rise of democracy and of the develop- 
ment of the idea of political freedom, as illustrated by the 
French Revolution, had its musical counterpart in the music 
of Beethoven and the passing away of the style of Haydn 
and Mozart. The rise of romantic literature and poetry 
made possible those wonderful songs of Schubert and 
Schumann, and prepared the way for the operas of Weber 
and Wagner, and was the forerunner of everything which 
belongs to what is known as the Romantic school of music. 
The modern tendency amongst European peoples to assert 
their own individuality and to struggle for political inde- 
pendence and freedom is but another aspect of that innate 
power which makes their creative work reflect so intensely 
their national life, and which is illustrated in the music of 
such essentially national composers as Grieg, Dvofdk 
Tschaikowsky, and others of less commanding genius. But 
it is unnecessary to emphasise this point further. Every 
student of the history of any form of Fine Art admits the force 
of such influences, and they are certainly as potent in music 
as in any other Art, even if they are not more so. Admitting 
this to be the case, we can therefore only understand in an 
intelligent manner many of the facts in the history of the 
development of music if we possess a general knowledge of 
the history — social, political, religious and intellectual — of 
such times. The progress of any Art must of course depend 
primarily upon the appearance of individuals possessed of 
highly gifted artistic natures; but given these individuals, 
the nature and direction of the development of the Art 
must be greatly influenced by the environment of the 

Viewed in this sense, musical history is a branch of general 
history. It can only be studied intelligently and fully 
understood by frequent reference to such non-musical history. 
By confining our studies to music itself, it is true we shall 
see that at certain periods certain modes of expression and 
certain forms were discarded and others of a different nature, 
sometimes less matured than those they superseded, were 
adopted ; some forms of Art fell into the background and 
languished, while others became exceptionally prominent 
and developed in a correspondingly rapid degree, but the 


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146 The Study of the History of Music. 

reason of such changes taking place at those special times 
can frequently only be fully explained by reference to history 
which is essentially non-musical. 

To study in the most comprehensive manner cause and 
effect, tendency and result, in direct connection with the 
development of the material, forms, and modes of expression 
employed in music is the highest aspect of the study of music, 
but it is obviously a study the boundary lines of which are 
very wide apart. It embraces, first of all, the study of music 
of all peric^s and in all forms, but it also embraces a 
sufficiently wide study of general history to supply a key to 
the special character of any age in which music, as we now 
understand it, was cultivated ; that is, in connection with any 
one country, we must consider the influence of the political, 
social and religious conditions and of the influence of literature 
and the other Arts, for as John Hullah has so aptly said : 
“ The fine Arts, in their greatest force and in their highest 
perfection, are but the expression of the condition of the 
world in which they are practised." 

To study the history of music from its early beginnings until 
its present maturity, upon the lines I have indicated, is not 
possible to many. Under the most favourable circumstances 
it is obvious that it must be a study extending over several, 
probably many, years, for it involves a large amount of reading 
not directly connected with music. But although the study 
of such a complete view of musical history is only possible to 
the leisured musician, it is possible for the ordinary student 
with limited reading time, but who feels a keen interest in 
the subject, to select special periods and epochs for this 
detailed study, and I do not hesitate to say that the time 
thus spent will amply repay him, both on account of the 
grasp he will obtain of the purely musical aspect of the study 
and also of the breadth of view he will acquire with reference 
to historical study generally. 

As such studies are generally pursued at irregular intervals 
of time, in order to assist the memory and constantly to keep 
before the mind the leading influences which may possibly 
affect the course of musical developments, I, personally, 
employ a chart which I gradually build up as opportunities 
present themselves, to read up related historical matter, and 
upon which chart eventually appear the chief events 
classified under their own special heading. {See Chart III.) 
Such a chart I consider is necessary, in order that whenever 
we have time to renew our studies we may take in at a glance 
the ground we have already traversed and its chief landmarks, 
and thus take up the thread where we last broke it off. Also 
by the aid of such a chart, which appeals directly to the eye 
and therefore to the strongest form of memory, it is far easier 
to retain the leading events of history and their approximate 

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The Study of the History of Music. 147 

position both absolutely in time, and also relatively to one 
another, than by merely reading about them in a book. 

At last I am nearing the end of a Paper which, despite its 
length, I trust has not proved altogether uninteresting 
to some of those present. In it I have endeavoured to 
expose some of the fallacies which surround the study of the 
history of music, and which also enter largely into examina- 
tions upon this subject. I have tried to prove to you that 
unless historical knowledge is accompanied by, or, in other 
words, fertilized by, a knowledge of the music belonging to 
the corresponding periods and in the different musical forms, 
such historical knowledge can possess no musical value. I 
have also brought before you evidence to show that as some 
examinations are at present passed, such knowledge of music 
is practically out of the reach of the student because of the 
remote periods and the special departments of the Art which 
are dealt with, and therefore so far as aiding musical 
education such examinations are worthless. And I have 
also made various suggestions as to the study of the subject, 
so that this may proceed upon some intelligible plan, and 
thereby fulfil its proper function of widening the musical 
sympathies and of training the musical judgment. 

In metaphorical language, I have drawn your attention to 
the disease ; I have given you my diagnosis and also* my 
prescription. The question then arises. What is the next 
step, and with whom does it lie ? There is only one answer 
to this question, and that is any complete reform in the 
directions I have indicated must rest very largely with those 
who set examination papers upon this subject. In few 
subjects of study is the influence of the examiner so 
powerful as in that of the history of music, because, as I 
said previously, it is rarely studied in any serious and 
systematic manner at all unless required for an examination. 

In connection with this I make a distinct reservation with 
regard to the students of the Royal College of Music, where 
the regular courses of history lectures which for many years 
have been given by Sir Hubert Parry form quite a special 
feature of the music course there. Although there are 
occasional lectures on the history of music given at the Royal 
Academy of Music, the Guildhall School of Music, and 
Trinity College, I do not think that at any of these 
educational institutions there are continuous courses covering 
the whole development of the Art like those given at the 
Royal College of Music, neither do I think the study of the 
subject at these latter institutions is made in any degree 
compulsory. Although much may be done by the influence 
of private teachers, and I hope as one result of this Paper 
more may be done in the future than has been done in the 
past, yet it is chiefly towards the examiner we must look for 
L 2 

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148 The Study of the History of Music. 

help in this matter. The question which we have to face is 
this. In what directions should examinations in the history 
of music be modified so that the knowledge they test may be 
of real musical value to the student ? I cannot now do more 
than offer one suggestion upon this very debatable subject. 
It is a very simple one, but I think it is a practical one. It 
is this, that in connection with every such examination which 
is at all of a comprehensive nature ‘the syllabus should 
contain a list of musical compositions representing the 
different periods and different musical forms upon which 
questions will be set ; and it should also contain information 
as to the publication of such or where they may be seen, 
while questions referring to definite facts about such works 
should form an essential part of such examination. In con- 
nection with those composers with whom such a course of 
procedure is unnecessary — as, for instance, Beethoven or 
Mendelssohn — the examinee should be required to give the 
titles of those works of which he has direct personal know- 
ledge and upon which knowledge his answer is based. Such 
a method would doubtless limit the period upon which 
questions might be asked of the young student, but it would 
ensure that the pupil had at least some acquaintance with 
the music of the period and of the composers about which 
he was writing. 

To train and to develop the judgment of the musician, the 
power which guides him at every step of his professional 
work, which if rightly directed may make him an influence 
for the ennobling of his Art, or if wrongly directed may cause 
him to debase it, is surely no unimportant matter at the 
present time, when the claims of composers are frequently 
advertised and advocated as far beyond their real merits, as 
their compositions are sometimes orchestrated out of all 
proportion to the genuine musical ideas from which they are 
evolved. To train the mind of the musician to grapple with 
and to come to a right decision upon problems of this kind is 
the special province of historical study, and it cannot be 
unimportant to us whether this branch of study be pursued 
in a way which leads to some valuable result, or upon a 
method which is almost, if not entirely, barren of musical 
result, and if anything which I have said, or which will 
be said in the discussion which will follow will induce both 
teachers and examiners to study this important subject 
for themselves, to bring to the test of common-sense the 
present methods of study and the prevailing methods of 
examining, and to use their influence to make the study of 
musical history a more efficient instrument in the hands 
of the musical educationists, this Paper will not have been 
read in vain. 

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Mrs. Rosa Newmarch. — I am sure we have listened with 
great interest to this energetic and able plea for the more 
rational study of musical history. It seems to me that we 
may deduce one or two immediate conclusions from Dr. 
Shinn’s Paper. First, that one hopeful sign is the improve- 
ment in the quantity and quality of historical material ; 
although, on the other hand, we still adhere to very irrational 
methods of using it. Secondly, that as regards musical 
biography — the side of musical history to which personally 
I have devoted most attention — it appears that our writers 
separate too strictly the biographical element from the analysis 
of a composer's creative work. Our best musical writers 
have hitherto rather despised biography, which, after all, 
forms the best introduction to the study of musical history. 
Consequently biography has often fallen into the hands of 
inferior and uncritical writers ; whereas our books dealing 
with musical history have erred on the side of erudition and 
disregard for the personal element. I was very glad to learn 
that there were regular courses of lectures on this subject at 
the Royal College of Music, for I was under the impression 
that there were no chairs of Musical History or ^Esthetics in 
any of our large teaching institutions. One naturally compared 
this with what is done for the student at foreign conserva- 
tories. Take that of St. Petersburg, for instance, where the 
lectures of Professor Sacchetti, published periodically, every 
two or three years, form a most valuable basis for the study 
of Musical History and Elsthetics. However, I am sure 
there are many who have something to say on a subject which 
lends itself so admirably to discussion and elucidation. 

Mr. J. Percy Baker. — I think Dr. Shinn’s Paper is a very 
interesting one, though possibly some of the suggestions he has 
made would have to be modified according to circumstances. 
His ideas undoubtedly point the right way. Those examina- 
tion papers he read are positively wicked. They are 
eminently calculated to kill whatever inclination a pupil may 
have for musical history — I mean a pupil of the class for 
whom the paper was intended. It is like carefully boiling 
your egg before placing it in the incubator. I find personally 
that it is very difficult to interest young people at all in 
musical history, even when the subject is approached in the 
most tentative and least technical manner. Probably 
the tendency of school children generally is not to take 
much interest in their studies ; they have too much of them ! 

I have myself delivered lectures, designedly of a popular 
type, at various schools of music on the subject of Musical 
History, and I found that while the students at those places 

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150 The Study of the History of Music. 

were for the most part apathetic and indifferent, the parents, 
on the other hand, were really much more interested. They 
seemed quite surprised and delighted to find that such 
abstractions as Bach and Handel were men of like passions 
with themselves. The majority of composers are mere names 
to the great body of musical amateurs, and it is most desirable 
that we should persuade people that they were living persons 
who put forth living music. In the course of my professional 
duties I come largely in contact with young people, and I 
find they are, as a rule, lamentably ignorant of everything 
connected with history — not merely the history of music, but 
the history of their own native country. They know a few 
dates and that is all. Dr. Shinn’s charts are likely to be 
very serviceable to a student, especially to a serious-minded 
student. Years ago my own taste for musical history was 
first aroused by the appearance of Naumann’s History of 
Music in its English dress. It came out in parts, and I 
devoured each part as it appeared. I waded through the 
account of the Hindu and Chinese music and got rather 
stuck over that of the Greeks. But when I came to the 
Netherland School I was really in a state of mind like Paul 
Dombey’s when they tried to put him through Dr. Blimber’s 
forcing process. My mind was not cleared till I had to study 
music a little more seriously. When I hit by good fortune 
upon the idea of Dr. Shinn’s Chart No. 3, I fixed these 
happenings by reference to the history of our own land ; it 
was only in that way I got at last a fair idea of what the 
history of music is as a whole. 

Mr. Matthew. — It seems to me there are two objects 
in studying history — firstly, for itself ; secondly, to pass 
examinations. I really do think the course for examinations 
with us has been sufficient to damp the ardour of any student 
whatever. Of course the main object of the works that are 
brought out with a view to preparation for an examination is 
to enable the student to bilk the examiner. I must say it 
appears to me that the most important thing is to interest 
the pupil in the study ; and certainly the lectures that 
Dr. Shinn describes are admirably adapted for the purpose. 
It seems to me that educational concerts would also be an 
admirable scheme. There are some where they play certain 
works over and then describe to the young people the aim of 
the composer, and also give an interesting account of his life. 

I quite agree that biography is the first step to the study. 
Of course the number of books that one has on one’s own 
shelf is quite appalling. There is no lack of books ; but 
they all could be made more interesting. There is a want of 
a good History for young people ; it occurs to me that 
perhaps Dr. Shinn could be induced to give us one which 
would meet the wants he has so well described. 

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The Study of the History of Music. 15I 

Miss Nellie Chaplin. — With reference to the classes that 
have been referred to, I can only say that the children seem 
intensely interested in the history of music. They listen to 
the music much better if they can have the personality of the 
composer brought before them as a living reality. We have 
given ten or twelve concerts, which the children enjoyed 
most thoroughly, and I believe they will grow still more 
popular. We have taken the great composers from Bach 
and Handel, through Haydn, Mozart, and Schumann, up to 
Brahms ; and we have also had a lecture on folk-song. Of 
course the information that can thus be conveyed is very 
scanty ; but certainly an interest has been arous^. 

Mr. R. R. Terry. — I think I have listened to this interesting 
Papier, as each one listens to such a paper — viz., from his own 
point of view. With regard to one or two things in it I am 
sure we are in entire agreement. But there is one essential 
feature with regard to the writing of all musical history 
about which one would like to hear more. It has always 
struck me with regard to the average musical history that is 
intended to be put into the hands of young students, that, in 
almost every instance, it is not written by a person who can 
be considered as, to any extent, a universal authority on 
music. I may be unfortunate in my experience ; but to my 
own mind the only satisfactory book is one written by 
Sir Hubert Parry. This is not only interesting to the young 
on account of the style, but it is also very interesting to many 
who are older. I have a vivid recollection of my studies in 
musical history. When I read Burney and Hawkins 
through, I cannot say what the result was. As a certain 
Doctor of Music has described it, it was absolutely wedged 
in. But in my early teens I had to take up a little book 
which was supposed to contain all the musical history 
necessary for an average student. In the light of further 
experience I turned back to it, and found that on vital 
questions this little book was not merely faulty, but entirely 
wrong. I had read that Palestrina was a great composer, 
who wrote a number of Masses, some of them in six parts. 
I ask whether that can seriously be considered as anything 
more than a caricature of that period of art. Then with 
regard to the question of the Modes. I think the tendency 
of musical histories hitherto has been too much to regard the 
period of the Modes as something that is dead and done 
for. One can no more separate one period from another in 
music than in literature, or painting, or sculpture, or aught 
else. Each separate period has its own characteristics, but 
we do not have any bulkhead partitions ; each overlaps 
another ; and why we should consider certain forms of art 
that are no longer universally practised, as dead, I cannot 
imagine. And that leads me to a point on which I must 

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venture to differ from the lecturer ; I mean with regard 
to his statement that the Reformation and the Renaissance 
killed the old Modes. As far as my own experience has gone, 
it seems there is a very radical difference between the different 
form of art that appeared at the Renaissance. With regard 
to literature, the old Greek works had been revived, and 
people had become familiar with them. The whole work of 
Erasmus in this connection is doubtless well known to you. 
In that case we had a harking back to classical models. The 
Renaissance art was in its nature an attempt to reproduce 
classical types. But in the case of music, I think there is a 
very distinct difference, because so far from the Renaissance 
having stamped music with the ancient classical spirit, I 
think it was the reverse. For ages there had been an art 
building up, which I may describe as Plain-Song, though that 
is a very imperfect name for it. But so far from musical art 
having to go back to classical models, it was in the Renaissance 
period that the polyphonic art was brought to perfection, and 
this was the logical development of the Plain-Song under the 
old modes. From that point of view therefore the analogy 
does not seem to hold good. The only point I was not quite 
clear about was, Did the lecturer refer to history as written 
for examination purposes, or to history written as an ordinary 
history would be written for the general reader ? Because 
it seems to me that the demands of the two are widely 
different. But they should have one thing in common, and 
that is, that instead of being written by the hack, they should 
be written by the expert. If you go to an old library in any 
ancient town in Europe, you will find huge tomes lining the 
walls, and you think, how can a man in a lifetime imbibe all 
this learning ? But these tend more and more in the course 
of centuries to be condensed into handbooks. It seems to me 
that the hand of the expert is just as much needed in a 
handbook, as it was in the Oxford History of Music or 
Grove’s Dictionary. Anyway, I think there would be a 
much more intelligent interest aroused, and it would not 
be commonly regarded by the outside public as mere hack 
work, because we all know that in scholastic work of any 
kind, it is the experienced teacher who naturally takes the 
lowest forms. 

Miss Daymond.— One or two things occurred to me during 
the reading of the Paper. First, I think it is an excellent 
plan not to begin with Chapter I. It is much better, surely, 
for the average student to begin with what is of really vital 
interest to himself, and work back to that exceedingly com- 
prehensive Chapter I. mentioned by Dr. Shinn. I heard, the 
other day, of rather a good specimen of an examination paper, 
which covered all periods, from Ambrose of Milan to Wagner. 
It seems to me a good deal to get into one paper. I have 

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The Study of the History of Music. 

found it a good plan, though I mention it with some diffi- 
dence, to aim at making the musicians real entities, with 
whom the student becomes acquainted through their works. 
Mere strings of names are useless. But having selected a 
composer well known to the people with whom we have to 
do, I have found it a good plan, especially with the younger 
students, to read them a good Life of the composer, such 
as that in Sir Hubert Parry’s “ Studies of Great Com- 
posers ” ; and as the various technical terms occur during 
the Life one can make little digressions, and explain 
them by illustrations from the composer with whom we 
are dealing. This, of course, harks back to the old 

idea of making the person interesting by showing how he 
worked, and what influence his life had on the particular 
form of work he undertook. And surely it must be 
necessary to learn general history to know how the times in 
which he lived affected the composer. This seems to be, to a 
large extent, neglected. I think that the result of continuous 
reading from Chapters I. to XXIV., or so, would be not to 
make a musical prig, but to make the whole of the early part 
of the book go through the student’s head and leave nothing 
remaining. If you cannot refer to actual examples of their 
works, any teaching of history is almost fruitless ; and that is 
another reason for beginning with the things that everybody 
knows. I do not think that examinations in themselves are 
bad ; but there seems to be a lamentable want of common- 
sense in many examination questions. Think of the 
questions that have been read out to us to-day : what 
possible good would it do to an ordinary person to compare 
the styles of Bellini, Rossini, and Donizetti ? Examination 
syllabuses for young people want revising. There really 
might be a Board of Teachers and Examiners to agree on 
the general methods to be adopted. Examinations do not 
want abolishing, but they do want altering. Their object 
should be not merely to puzzle students, but to guide them 
definitely through a sensible, helpful, educational course. 

Dr. Shinn. — I am very glad to hear these different opinions 
expressed, because I am not one who believes that “ if you 
do not learn my method you are wasting your money.” I 
believe there is a danger of attaching ourselves too much to a 
single system. There must be many methods, or at any rate 
elasticity of method. Miss Daymond has employed a some- 
what different method from that which I suggested, and I am 
sure there must be other methods which would be helpful. 
We are very pleased to hear her experience, as she is keenly 
interested in this subject. With regard to Mr. Terry’s 

remarks, I do not think that what I said, taken as a brief 
general statement, is a misrepresentation of what took place 
as the outcome of the Renaissance ; however, I am very glad to 

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154 Study of the History of Music, 

hear any divergent opinions. The point he raised, however, 
was quite a side issue. I think the result of all the discussion 
is that a knowledge of what is called Musical History without 
a knowledge of Music is worthless. Another point is, 
that examination papers, as set at the present day, cover a 
range of music of which any adequate understanding is 
absolutely out of the question. 

(The meeting closed with a cordial vote of thanks to 
Dr. Shinn for his Paper.) 

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June 19, 1906. 

In the Chair. 


By Percy C. Buck, M.A., Mus.D., Oxon. 

It has been said, with a great deal of truth,— and I think 
that few of those present will want to question the validity 
of the statement, — that a love of discussion is one of the most 
elementary and most permanent characteristics of the human 
race. It is, indeed, natural and right that our desire should 
be to exercise actively those gifts which have placed us above 
the lower animals ; and the progress towards freedom of 
thought and conduct in all spheres, which is a mark of the 
English speaking races beyond others, is assuredly due to our 
highly-developed love of combat in word as well as in action. 
So true is this, that as a nation we are commonly accused of 
being willing, and even anxious, to maintain a position we 
have no belief in, provided only we can thereby provoke and 
sustain an argument. 

But I am probably only putting into words what has been 
the experience of all of you, when I say that, speaking 
generally, the Englishman is at his worst in discussing an 
abstract subject. It is to him, as Herbert Spencer said 
pathetically of his own works, not so much caviare as castor- 
oil. And as we all here are specially interested in music, 
and must have discussed some aspect of it with average 
people many hundreds of times, I may narrow down my 
hypothesis to this : — that the ordinary man, in discussing any 
point of musical aesthetics, starts from no general principles, 
loses his thread continually in the process of argument, and 
not only reaches no final conclusion, but is generally more 

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156 Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 

than ever convinced that any conclusion whatever is im- 
possible. 1 believe you will admit my claim that it is both 
true and regrettable that the musical amateur not only has 
no abiding standards of judgment, but for the most part has 
never even conceived the possibility of the existence of any 

Now musical aesthetics, to be dealt with adequately, require 
an unusual combination of musical training and philosophical 
knowledge, and both in a high degree ; and as my own 
musical opinions are valuable only to myself, and my 
philosophical knowledge has not even that distinction, I will 
put you at your ease by saying at once that I have no theory 
of aesthetics to offer you this evening. But as one who reads 
most of the ordinary writings on music which aim at being 
philosophical I have continually been struck — and the same 
thing must have happened to many here — by the fact that 
they fail to make their due impression by ignoring the 
elementary data of the subject. All the serious writings 
that I know of in musical aesthetics are, for the average 
reader, too learned ; they assume a clearness of thinking, 
and a conception of the meaning of abstract terms, and the 
processes of logic and philosophical thought which are not 
possessed by the very people whom the writers most desire to 
influence. The result of this absence of elementary analysis 
is, firstly, that ordinary people are unable to understand and 
appreciate any musical criticism which takes a high artistic 
standpoint, and secondly, that our musical critics have for 
the most part abandoned such a standpoint, and prefer to 
give personal impressions and opinions rather than to aim at 
reaching a valuation by means of analysis and comparison. 
In all the many notices I read, for instance, about a recent 
and important oratorio, I found not a word about its con- 
formity to standards already understood and the merit that 
justified one more manifestation on these lines, not a word 
about its departures from these traditions and how far they 
successfully commended themselves ; but I merely collected 
a series of isolated opinions from not very important people 
as to how they liked the work. 

To appreciate good music and to raise the standard of 
appreciation amongst our own circle — that, to us musicians, 
is the whole Ark of the Covenant. We can do this only by 
a study of critical processes which is earnest and not casual, 
which realizes that such study is a roadway and not a 
terminus, and recognizes that true criticism is vital to the 
progress of all art whatsoever. I propose, as a reasonable 
division of the subject, to inquire — 

(i) What are the usual objections to the study of 
.i^isthetics ; 

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Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 157 

(2) How can these objections be answered ; and 

(3) What means are there, ready to hand, of fostering 

an interest in and clear conception of the elements 
of the subject, without demanding a wide philo- 
sophical outlook in an untrained mind ? 

The usual difficulties I have myself met with, when insisting 
on the terms ‘ good ’ and ‘ bad ’ being applicable to music, are 
three in number. “ Aller guten Dingen sind drei ” say the 
Germans, and I suppose the proverb is equally true of bad 
things. Firstly, there is the blunt man to deal with, who 
maintains that no standard of good or bad can possibly exist 
where everything is obviously a matter of taste. Secondly, 
the plausible man, who, having just enough reading to 
recognize the untenability of the former position, has also 
enough conceit to claim that his own opinion is as good as 
anybody’s. And, lastly, the placid ignoramus, who believes 
that knowledge destroys the power of enjoyment. There are, 
of course, other sub-divisions of scepticism, but I am not 
aiming at scientific completeness, and these three are enough 
for us to deal with here. 

In combating our first objector — who denies the possibility 
of any standard, rather than its jurisdiction — I think the 
most cogent plan is to use the old Socratic method of getting 
him, by his own admissions, into a corner. The rockbed of 
his position is that all valuation is arbitrary, and will be over- 
ruled by the inexorable swing of the pendulum. Does he, or 
does he not, feel sure that there is more human beauty in the 
face of Lady Hamilton or the Sistine Madonna than in that 
of the late Miss Jane Cakebread ? Is there, or is there not, 
more to admire in the features of Rodin’s “ Le Penseur” 
than in Mr. Tree’s appearance as Caliban ? He may, of 
course, in these cases say the difference is in abnormality or 
distortion ; but then the discussion can very well begin on 
the value of the normal in questions of beauty. “ Art,” said 
Bishop Creighton, “ is the veil of Beauty over Law.” 
Choose your own instances, and secure an admission that a 
nearer approach to beauty occurs for any reason in one than 
in the other, and the ice is broken : the existence of a 
standard, however evasive and vague, is granted, and you 
can leave your man wiser than you found him. There are, 
indeed, people to be met with who deny in toto that there is 
any ground whatever for calling one face beautiful and 
another ugly ; I have even met one controversialist who 
(like the Irishman who thought one man as good as another — 
“and sometimes better”) was prepared to maintain that 
hereafter the positions as we allot them would be exactly 
reversed. But such people are already spoiling for argument. 

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158 Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 

so they may be ignored here, since our one object is to prove 
to a sceptic the value of discussion. Having then obtained 
an admission of variation in degrees of beauty, it is generally 
easy with patience to carry one’s point. Firstly, we do not 
desire to reach an ultimate standard, or imprison a final type 
of beauty. The analysis of any abstract quality — Truth, 
Virtue, and the like, no less than Beauty — does not aim at 
reaching a goal, but at erecting signposts ; and an attainable 
ideal would inspire pilgrims of but small valiance. Secondly, 
as in these days Religion, Conduct, and indeed every branch 
of human activity is subjected to searching and scientific 
analysis, it will be a poor service to music if we allow 
ignorance to prevail without even attempting to co-ordinate 
our feelings to such an extent as is possible. Taste is 
thought guiding feeling, but where the feelings are not under 
control guidance is clearly impossible. 

My second type of objector is more insidious in the harm 
he does, and more difficult to deal with by argument. He is 
— the specimens I have in mind are — to a certain extent 
trained in music, and looked up to as an authority in less 
intelligent circles ; but from a lack of a wider development, or 
from natural want of sober and reticent judgment, he suffers 
from the absence of critical acumen. He will tell you he has 
devoted his life to music, has penetrated the abysm of its 
theory — which generally means he has learnt to do double- 
counterpoint — and who now, he will add, is to gainsay his 
argument that what he likes best is as good and great as any 
other man’s selection ? He states his opinion with an 
oracular certainty and Athanasian emphasis which turns 
it into an ultimatum, since it is pointing the pistol at 
your disagreement. Men of this type, when professional 
musicians, are generally, of course, those whose musical 
education has been meagre and ill-managed, but when 
amateurs they are more often those dangerous people who 
have learnt the correct thing to say. They know the outward 
and visible signs of critical wisdom, and have enamelled 
their remarks with them ; but their minds all the time remain 
undiscriminating. It is as though they thought the remedy 
for dirty hands to be the wearing of gloves. To me they 
always recall the anecdote of Charles Lamb, who, when a 
certain surveyor of taxes remarked that Milton was a very 
clever man, got up and said “ I must feel this gentleman’s 
bumps.” It is part of the sane man’s burden to suffer fools 
gladly, and to such men as I have mentioned one can 
generally put it that they have missed the logical road. All 
men have natural and differing affinities in every manifestation 
of sensuous activity. He can always be induced to admit 
that a feeling for the right kind of beauty is hardly a primary 
instinct, and that it can always be improved by education ; 

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Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 159 

further, that the mass, with whom the final decision rests, 
always (as in the cases of Bach, Schumann, Wagner, &c.) 
go wrong before they ultimately go right. And probably he 
will agree finally that uniformity of personal predilection is as 
undesirable as it is impossible. In a word, all arguments 
founded on the principle “ My taste is as good as yours,” 
apart from being peculiarly dangerous to the equanimity of 
both sides, lead invariably in aesthetics to an intellectual 
cul-de-sac ; whereas the main road lies in gaining an insight 
into, and forming a verdict on, what is good, independently of 
whether or no it appeals to that personal equation in our own 
nature for which we are not responsible. 

The third type I suggested — the ignoramus who argues 
that, because you and 1 dislike intensely some tunes which 
give him gratification, therefore education in music contracts 
our power of enjoyment — he is indeed difficult to deal with. 
Mr. Hunt, in one of his essays on Art, says “I know, ignorant 
as I am, more about Homer than a Greek professor knows 
about Phidias. He might tell me what year he was born in — 
well, a rat was born about the same time.” So this type does 
genuinely think that the difference between our knowledge of 
Bach and his own lies, not in our being able (as Emerson 
says) “to see behind the idea,” but merely in our recognizing 
that there is something clever, as apart from beautiful, in the 
music. Such a man is not, as a rule, open to conviction, and 
so is unqualified for discussion ; but as a homely method of 
dealing with him I generally ask if he thinks his cook would 
appreciate Shakespeare — or any high type of work which you 
can find he himself does appreciate — and a line of argument 
is at once open which is of infinite value to one’s own 
patience, even if no virtue accrues to the ignoramus. There 
is, in case you do not all know it, a fine treatment of this 
point in Mr. Sully’s “ Sensation and Intuition” (pp. 359, seq.). 
To have this essay at the back of one’s mind is to enter on 
an argument girt about in css triplex. 

Having dealt cursorily with a few of the objections to a 
study of aesthetics on the ground of its want of validity, let 
me suggest a few reasons why we can reasonably claim that 
such study is not only useful but imperative. 

(i) Art lives by criticism, and the whole vitality of Art, 
and the supply of first class creative and interpretative artists 
varies almost directly in proportion to the saneness and 
soundness of the criticism prevailing. I say “ almost ” 
because we have to allow for such occasional phenomena 
as Wagner, to whom opposition is sometimes an incentive. 
But even he might have been sensitive enough to die young, 
as Keats did, and we should have had no “ Meistersinger”; and 
further, genuine criticism would have resulted in his being 

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i6o Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 

accepted far sooner than was the case under the barren 
methods by which he was judged. 

(2) Conversations and discussions of a critical nature are 
the only possible means of creating that “atmosphere” which 
is the breath of life to any artistic circle, whether of artists or 
students. It was largely the lack of this atmosphere in our 
English schools that made it imperative, until recently, for a 
student to seek his musical education abroad. 

(3) Only by having our critical opinions founded on a basis 
of reason can we be sure that, as Mr. Hadow puts it, we are 
not worshipping at the wrong shrine. Everyone knows the 
common objection to logic — that it enables the man in the 
wrong to overcome his opponent who is in the right, — whereas 
of course the whole object of logic is to render such a thing 
impossible. I admit that the highest function of criticism is 
to discover the good rather than to pillory the bad — that, as 
Hegel says, the real tragedy is not between right and wrong, 
but between right and right, and that it is the overlooking of 
this fact that makes the “ Montgomery ” essay so inartistic — 
still, it is a great point in favour of grounding our opinions 
firmly on ascertained and admitted truths if we are thereby 
secured from giving to fifth-rate works of art that admiration 
which should be reserved for the first rate. 

(4) Lastly I maintain that everyone has, at the back of his 
mind, a scaffolding of criticism, vague if you like, and often 
not to be reduced to words, by which, nevertheless, he 
judges all works of art presented to him. You will recall the 
Greek view that children contained in them knowledge in the 
embryo, and that it was the teacher’s business to draw it forth 
and tend and culture it. So have all men a potential sense of 
what is beautiful. The aesthetic sense is universal, but when 
nature is unassisted by education this sense is almost always 
not only liable, but likely to err. Further, it is only by the 
discussion of aesthetic questions that this sense can, as a rule, 
fully and consciously develop ; and such discussions are not 
futile because of men’s varying tastes, inasmuch as the judg- 
ments of mankind, as education and opportunity increase, 
most certainly do verge towards a common standard. We 
may have our views on Debussy, but we all feel as secure 
about Sebastian Bach as about Homer or Isaiah. 

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Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 



[Distributed amongst the audience to facilitate the following of the 
argument from this point.] 

Preliminary Considerations. 

1. What is the “ end ” of music ? 

II. To what in our nature does music appeal ? 

III. How does it make that appeal ? 

Criticism is concerned mainly, if not wholly, with (iii). 
HI. Subdivides into attributes of two classes : — 

A. Qualities existing prior to performance (intrinsic). 

(1) Grammar. 

(2) Subject matter. 

(3) Presentation. 

B. Qualities arising from performance (extrinsic). 

(1) Sensuous. 

(2) Intellectual. 

(3) Emotional. 

Three axioms of music : — 

11) It manifests Personality, and 

(2) Suitability, and 

(3) Embodies Zeitgeist 

Three postulates : — 

(1) It must employ Balance, and 

(2) Contrast, and 

(3) Display Reticence 


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1 62 Prolegomena to Musical Criticism, 

Thus far I have dwelt on the advisability of a study of 
musical aesthetics ; now let us see how far, in a quite 
elementary sense, it is possible to make such a study interest- 
ing and fruitful. Three preliminary questions occur at once 
on the threshold, (i) What is the “ end ’’ and object of a 
musical work ? (2) What in our nature does such a work 

appeal to ? and (3) In what manner does it make that appeal ? 
These are the three preliminary questions on the synopsis you 
have before you. [Se« Analysis, page 161.] It is my experience 
that a great part of the looseness and confusion of thought that 
arise in almost every discussion on music, is due to the inability 
of one or both of the contestants to keep these three divisions 
clear and distinct. Overlapping occurs of course in any 
subdivision of such a subject as this, but it is generally 
practicable to keep all the main issues under their proper 
section, (i) Concerns itself with the teleology of art, (2) with 
psychology pure and simple, and (3), which is our principal 
concern in all matters of criticism, is the essential question, by 
the study of which any open minded person can improve his 
power or judgment. 

As regards the first question, all that need be said here is, 
that Art is the means by which a mind strives to reproduce in 
another mind some subjective state or mood, in which it finds 
itself. “Music,” says Helmholtz, “produces not definite 
emotion, but emotional frames of mind ” ; and Browning puts 
the same thought into other words when he says : 

Qod uses us to help each other so, 

Lending our minds out. 

It is the result of imagination working on imagination through 
sense. To make this quite clear to a beginner I often suppose 
a poet, a painter, and a musician lost in admiration at, say, an 
inspiring sunset. The impression of wistful beauty soaks into 
them and permeates their imagination, and they return home, 
each in a definite, though perhaps indescribable mood. 
Their creative impulse, aroused to action, leads them to 
produce a poem, a picture, a piece of music, the object in each 
instance being the irrepressible desire to communicate that 
mood to those who may at any time come across their work. 
Writers like Tolstoi have, of course, tried to read ethical 
purposes into works of art, and other various functions have 
at times been accredited to the Muses ; but to us as musicians 
I think the one function imputed above is sufficient, more 
especially as it provides us with one test for that supreme 
quality of genuineness — i.e., originality — which must be 
present in all the highest art. Not only cati music reproduce 
words — the Traddles-like passion of schoolboys for Funeral 
marches is a convincing proof of its power over the most 
unpromising emotional material — but unless some mood is the 
generating cause, unless it was produced by necessity instead 

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Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. • 163 

of by taking thought, then it is f>ot-boiling. We may safely 
leave this point without further remark, beyond the reminder 
that the end of a work of art is one question, the value of it 
qua work, and not qud fulfilling that end, is another. If you 
say criticism is superfluous when the work fulfils its end, 
then we part company, as my object is to show the embryo 
artist how the normal great man succeeded in attaining the 
end he set before himself. 

The second question, as to what in our nature music 
appeals to, is of course an essential part of aesthetics proper, 
but is one which we had best leave alone. It is, as I said 
above, purely psychological, and claims a special training in 
those who would deal with it. 

But the third question — as to how music makes its appeal — 
is the main and final purpose of my paper. Before, however, 
going straight to the analysis of this question, I want to 
establish three axioms which I believe you will readily grant 
to be true of all music. They might reasonably be discussed 
later as points of style, but it seems to me to be advantageous 
to deal with them here and now. The first is that a musical 
composition must be a reflection of its author’s personality. 
All genuine art must be a projection of personality. Genius 
has been said to be “ ability plus character ” ; or in the words 
of Millais “ It is how hard a man can hit, not how beautifully 
he uses the gloves” that counts. This axiom is, I find, often 
confounded with the previous claim that music must represent 
a mood : but you will admit at once that a clever man can, 
and frequently does, lack personality to such an extent that 
he writes in the idiom of another. We have had quite enough 
composers who have given us genuine transcriptions of their 
moods, but all in terms of Brahms or Wagner. 

The second axiom is that the work must have a definite 
suitability to the purpose for which it was written. We 
have, for instance, many of us, danced with pleasure to strains 
which would have shocked us in a cathedral, and tried to 
worship with regret to music which might have pleased us at a 
variety entertainment. A vast amount of modern church music 
is bad almost entirely from a want of suitability ; it has, in the 
words of another, many good points but no redeeming features, 
and thoroughly deserves the epigram that “he who would 
tickle the ears of the man in the street must compose like a 
street musician.” My third axiom is, that music must bear a 
clear relationship to the period of its production. Call it 
Zeitgeist, or modernity, or what you will, it seems to me a 
definite flaw in a composition if, from internal evidence, I am 
quite unable approximately to suggest a date for it. This 
quality is almost entirely separate from its real value as a 
work of art, and will appeal less cogently as a merit to 
the judges who come after us. But there certainly is, at 
M 2 

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164 Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 

every period of history, a spirit of the time— that general 
consensus of demand which makes each generation look on its 
advanced men as the last possible word in music, and the 
next generation look on the same men as old-fashioned — and 
any work of art which ignores this spirit must be the result 
of its creator shutting himself up from the progressive 
influences of his day, and to that extent it fails in being the 
genuine expression of an artistic temperament. 

Now let us pass to the main characteristics of a composi- 
tion, those more tangible qualities which we can all grasp and 
analyse when discussing the merit of the work. I think that 
in this respect the writers on ^Esthetics have done less than 
they might have done for that very common type of listener 
who mistrusts his judgment, but fervently desires to make it 
sound. Mr. Hadow, for instance — the clearest and most 
pregnant writer on these points that I have yet come across 
— tells us that vitality, workmanship, propiortion, and fitness 
are the four unalterable qualities we should apprehend and 
valuate. For me to try to improve on so complete an 
analysis as he gives us would be both redundant and imper- 
tinent ; but I do suggest that, if a beginner learns by heart 
these four canons and then tries to judge, not, let us say, the 
Domestic Symphony, but such a simple thing as an ordinary 
hymn-tune, he will probably not be very much nearer to a 
true opinion than if he were to judge by his original and 
unaided instinct. To the musician, of course, Mr. Hadow’s 
work is beyond all value, but to a class of young students I 
think we must begin by an earlier stage of co-ordination. 

As a simple method I find the greatest possible clearness 
results from differentiating by a hard and fast line those 
qualities in a work which emanate from a composer, and 
may loosely be called intrinsic, and those which radiate 
to a listener, which 1 call extrinsic. Take the moment when 
the performance of a piece of music is actually beginning : 
we can then look backward at the processes which 
have brought the work to this moment, and forward to what 
impressions the audience are going to receive. Like most 
other things, these two classes each divide naturally into 
three groups. We can criticise — 

(1) The grammar of the work, 

(2) The subject-matter, 

(3) The manner of dealing with that matter — i.e,, Pre- 

sentation, including Style. 

On the other hand, we can look quite separately, when it 
comes to performance, at — 

(1) The sensuous qualities, 

(2) The intellectual qualities, and 

(3) The emotional qualities of the work. 

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Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 165 

Unless a radical objection is offered to my classification, I 
think it cannot be denied that no valuation of a musical 
composition is final which does not take into consideration 
these six aspects. I propose to make a few remarks under 
each heading, not, of course, as information to you musicians, 
but as showing the line that I have found it profitable to 
take in trying to arouse a clear habit of thinking amongst 
intelligent but elementary musical students. 

(i) As to grammar, we have a right to demand that this 
should be at least reasonably correct according to received 
notions; and that where it departs from custom, such departure 
should be intentional and not accidental. R. L. Stevenson, it 
is said, despised the art of spelling, and left it entirely to proof- 
readers to correct his manuscript in that direction. But though 
the proof-readers of music publishers do occasionally query 
our consecutive fifths, it would, considering the subtle value 
of the mere “ distribution ” of a chord, be dangerous to give 
them a free hand in altering them. , But there are errors in 
judging questions of grammar into which it is extremely easy 
to fall. Correctness is not everything, for in a competition for 
accuracy, Bradshaw would beat the Bible. Nor have the laws 
of grammar any adamant foundation. Every great composer 
puts a note of interrogation to the text-books universally 
accepted before he appeared ; and as what we call the laws of 
grammar are merely inductions from the practice of great men, 
we may in any specific instance be dealing with a man who is 
creating the law of the immediate future. In all activities, 
moreover, there are some esoteric rules, of little meaning or 
reason in themselves, but perhaps on this very account apt to 
be considered the more inviolable. Thus in billiards, even 
when it is to your own advantage, you must not for some 
occult reason “ pocket the white ” — it is “ bad form ” ; in cricket 
it used to be considered ungentlemanly to “pull," and in foot- 
ball to wear shinguards ; in lawn tennis, until the Americans 
taught us better, it was suburban to “ screw.” So in music, 
it is mother’s milk that you must, for instance, avoid fifths. 
To be sure the experts do commit these atrocities in every 
branch, and equally the tyro thinks it smart to do them 
without rhyme or reason. But none the less the doing of 
each and all of them should be decided by whether or no 
there is anything uncouth or unwarrantable — that is, in the 
musical case, ugly — under the particular conditions, and not 
by reference to any supposed a priori law. We cannot claim 
for any set of laws that they are permanent ; indeed, anybody 
that by its constitution leaves no loophole for revision and 
reform, must look in its future for, and is offering itself as a 
hostage to, insurgency and revolution. 

It is worth while, under this heading, to look for a moment 
at the question of special technique. I always maintain. 

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i66 Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 

though I have had many strenuous battles on the point, that a 
man who is an adept on a particular instrument is, however 
sure a guide otherwise, untrustworthy in his opinions on music 
written for that instrument. Is not Liszt overrated by pianists 
owing to the incomparable skill with which he lays out his work 
for the pianoforte ? Are not such widely different composers 
as Rheinberger and Guilmant over-dear to organists for a 
similar reason ? And do not many great violinists, some of 
whom must be judges of music, tolerate and even admire the 
work of Vieuxtemps and Wieniawski ? So that you will grant 
the question of adaptability to the medium to be a constant 
source of bias, if not of actual error. 

(2) With regard to subject-matter, I am not going to 
attempt, in an elementary paper, to codify the innumerable 
details which differentiate a fine subject from a poor one. 
The one point worth insisting on is, that the subject must, 
early or late, be judged solely qua subject, and not qua a 
musical idea calling up feelings and associations which endear 
it to us or make it repugnant. Nothing is more certain than 
that with practice one can be sure of securing ultimately a 
practicable standard ; for divergence of critical opinion on 
music is seldom founded to any important extent on opposite 
estimates of the value of the subject-matter. And in course 
of time any earnest mind will come to realize that in music, 
as in all art, there are innumerable ways of expressing a 
fundamental idea, but that to one of these expressions alone 
belongs that strange power of calling up for us shapes in the 
air, of whispering to us of inarticulate things, and in the 
noblest cases of seeming almost to initiate us into the things 
that lie beyond the veil. 

(3) With the question of Presentation we reach the most 
intricate portion of criticism ; but even here a study of 
the subject will produce a clearer view, and will help to 
dissipate wrong ideas. It is generally convenient to treat 
this section under two headings: (a) “ Style,” or the narrower 
term, “ manner and (6) “ Form.” In discussing “ Style,” 
various elementary things can be said which help the unripe 
mind. It is, for instance, the quality which enables a com- 
poser to make a “picture” of his score. Open a work by 
Bach, Brahms, Parry, or many others — open it upside down 
if you like — and you can name the composer at a glance. 
One can discuss “ mannerisms,” and instance Grieg as a 
sinner in the overuse of them. It is easy to make a list of 
the most prominent details which together constitute style, 
and also to enumerate the more obvious excellencies of 
individual composers. For instance, in discussing modula- 
tion and characteristic chords, I often point out how, in 
particular instances (like the G flat common chord in the 
first subject of Brahms's string Sextett in B flat), a passage is 

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Prolegomena to Musical Criticism, 167 

suddenly focussed by such a chord or modulation, just as the 
red coat which Ruskin said we must wait for in looking at 
Magdalen Bridge from the river, which instantly focusses and 
illuminates the whole scene. I find also that considerable 
interest arises from an examination of the obiter dictum that 
the supreme test of a style is whether it can survive imitation 
and parody. But perhaps the greatest insight into critical 
methods may be reaped from a study of (6), “ Form." Form 
is the composer’s confession of the importance he attaches 
to his ideas. It is the statics of music, as rhythm is the 
dynamics. The mere comparison of the subjects which the 
best composers have thought worthy of treatment in sonata 
or symphonic form with those of their short pianoforte pieces 
is one of the surest and soundest ways of initiating students 
into the relative value of “ subjects.” People are notoriously 
inclined in these days to sneer at form, but it is the sine qud 
non of all that comes under the head of workmanship ; 
only it must be a loving and parental workmanship, the 
essential framework of the beauty which clothes the bones. 
Ilou/r^c means “ maker,” or “ constructor ” ; and the poet, 
whether in words, painting, or music, too often allows 
insecurity of structure to rob him of a place amongst the 
immortals. The square-cut, block-form of Grieg always 
strikes me as particularly destructive of organic vitality, and 
an amusing instance occurs in connection with one of his 
Lyrische Stiicke. Its popularity led the publisher to print it 
separately from its original volume ; but being found too 
short for the purpose, its symmetry was spoiled by a 
repetition of the second half, printed in full in order to fill 
out the pages. I am always reminded by this of the man 
who said he was going to have the architecture put on his 
house as soon as the building was finished. 

As to what I have called the extrinsic qualities, inasmuch 
as their apprehension resides in the listener, they are, like 
the earlier consideration I mentioned, mainly psychological. 
But certain elementary facts help to show the simplest mind 
how some pitfalls of criticism may be avoided. With regard 
to (i) sensuous pleasure, for instance, we are safe in warning 
students against an overworship of scoring. An essentially 
barren idea is apt to deceive fairly astute critics when it is 
scored for cor anglais, bass clarinet, an array of tubas, and 
muted strings in many subdivided parts. Without denying 
the superlative genius of some men in their use of the 
orchestra, it is certainly well, in estimating an idea, to avoid 
being taken unawares by the beauty of sound in the 
particular instruments we are listening to. Further, we 
have only to examine the highly-coloured Christmas numbers 
of our illustrated papers to discover the axiom that, the less 
educated the recipient, the more will a purely sensuous 
appeal affect him. 

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i68 Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 

On the intellectual side (2) we may again arm the student 
against deception. The intellect is that which co-ordinates, 
or arranges, impressions received ; the result being perhaps 
knowledge, perhaps pleasure. Mr. Sully gives the excellent 
example of a man looking at some striking view. Beauty 
may be the absorbing reason of his long and searching gaze ; 
but he may be reconnoitring an enemy’s position, or even 
prospecting for a hotel. Whatever the reason, however, the 
function of the intellect is synthetic — it has to arrange his 
impressions like links in a chain, and in music it has to collect 
numerous and consecutive parts and combine them into a 
unified whole. There are two opposite dangers in regard to 
the intellectual side of music. The first is, that it is so easy 
to overrate the means which are intended to give music its 
intellectual ballast, and so to set a premium on cleverness 
and tricks of the trade. Mr. Whistler’s aphorism, that 
“ Industry in art is a necessity, not a virtue," may be modified 
for us into " Cleverness in music is a previous condition, not 
a beauty." In modern music, however, the highest praise 
seems to be given nowadays to what Mr. Henry James calls 
“ that particular kind of cleverness which is a dangerous 
variation of impertinence.” At certain stages of history, of 
course, the necessities or conventions of the time make a 
certain show of mental ability unavoidable. Our poets used 
to have to provide a certain minimum of alliterations, and 
Bach was obliged to be mainly contrapuntal and canonic. 
But though in such cases the ingenious overcoming of 
difficulties may become attractive alike to composer and 
listener, the ultimate beauty of the result is still the paramount 
necessity. In a word, cleverness must be so spontaneous as 
to appear inevitable ; for just as happiness has been described 
to be not doing what you like, but liking what you do, so a 
beautiful melody is not one which merely does what you 
expect, but one which compels you to expect what it is going 
to do, and even to be unable to imagine its doing anything else. 

The opposite danger is the first which we naturally would 
consider under (3) Emotion — namely, that the direct appeal 
to feelings may, and too frequently does, blind us to the 
absence of intellectual content. Try an illogical argument on 
a man in connection with a subject free from emotional bias, 
and he may detect the fallacy without ever having heard of 
syllogism or undistributed middle ; but a melodramatic appeal, 
or some eloquent special pleading, may let loose an emotional 
flood which will rapidly put his critical faculties under water, 
and his normal criteria will in consequence be obliterated. 
We have to be specially on our guard against any appeal to 
our emotions. In every other branch of life it is conceded 
that a conflict between judgment and feeling ought, in the 
vast majority of cases, to end in the victory of the former. 

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In questions of morals, appetites, duty, in every nook and 
cranny of life, the conflict is recognized to be so incessant 
that the sterner moralists tell us, when our judgment is reluc- 
tant to give a verdict, we must take the unpleasant course 
without more ado. Yet in this art of music alone, where 
from the beginning insincerity has deluded the injudicial, we 
are told by many modern critics that our feelings form the 
final court of appeal ; and so does the general public, at the 
cost of all sane and permanent criteria, maintain in a thousand 
and one instances the sovereignty of the charlatan. 

There are also two special dangers which are common 
enough for us to be on our guard against them. One I may 
call the association danger. You have heard the phrase, 
“ All emotion is one." For example, we find ourselves in a 
mood of sadness or joy, induced by a train of thought, when 
some sudden and disconcerting incident arrests and diverts 
our attention. This being past, we recur to our mood, but 
cannot recapture the thread of thought that induced it. Its 
cause may have been any one of many and diverse things, 
such as satisfaction in the beauties of a cathedral or a picture, 
a wave of patriotic feeling, or listening to the Marseillaise, 
the recalling of a symphony we have heard, a sudden stroke 
of fortune, or a determination to do an act of kindness on the 
morrow. Now to us whose emotional states are so generally 
due to music there is a peculiar liability to attribute those 
states invariably to music, and further to conclude that it 
must have been good music to induce the state. I am pre- 
pared to admit, for instance, that my favourite hymn-tune is 
one which, according to every canon of judgment I possess, 
is tawdry and meretricious ; but I would still rather hear it 
than almost any other, because of its unique associations for me 
and the resultant mood it throws me into. Less cold-blooded 
people than myself might easily fail to analyse the question, 
and so might be led to maintain that it was a fine tune. The 
second danger is due to sympathy. Sympathy is certainly 
one of the first essentials of admiration, but its peculiar danger 
lies in the fact that it almost compels admiration. Sometimes 
the cause may be friendship. Beauty in music is a thing 
which, as Wordsworth puts it, we “ half perceive and half 
create ’’ ; and an affection for a writer is apt to make 
us do more than our proper half. And under a sudden 
accession of sympathy we are prone to assume the zeal of 
the neophyte: for many people, having once “ got behind ” 
“ Die Meistersinger,” the German Requiem, or “ Tod und 
Verklarung," thenceforward show a dogged and almost 
fanatic loyalty towards every bar written over the signature 
of Wagner, Brahms, or Richard Strauss. 

I have now only to bring before you the three postulates — 
(i) Balance, (2) Contrast, and (3) Reticence. They might 

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170 Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 

have been dealt with previously as points of style, but I have 
kept them until now to give them a wider application. The 
six main characteristics of a musical work I have just tried to 
isolate and examine ; my only further remark about them is 
the obvious one that Balance in their use is vital, if the result 
is to be an organic structure. In large works everyone 
recognizes the necessity of Balance, but in smaller ones we 
are apt to forget that, as Palgrave says, “ Finish must be in 
proportion to brevity.” When any one quality is over- 
marked, the essential unity is endangered. In a folk-song, for 
instance, the prominence of rhythm is an ever-present peril 
which is only averted by obvious and naive genuineness in 
the melody : add a little self-consciousness in the form of 
accidentals, and we get the vulgar or the commonplace. 
Just as ignoring the emotional side produces “ Kapellmeister- 
musik,” so the overdoing of the sensuous effect in, for instance, 
Liszt’s works, has for most of us lowered his importance 
and almost justified the title of “ opium-music ” which has 
been applied to them. And it would be easy to put one’s 
finger, in this way, on the main omissions which make us 
qualify our admiration of such composers as Dussek, Hummel, 
Chopin, Schumann, and Dvorak. But you will, I am sure, 
admit not only that Balance is a cardinal virtue in music, but 
also that if many people in the world found themselves 
susceptible — as in Tolstoi’s “ Kreutzer Sonata” — exclusively 
to the emotional side of music, it would indeed be time to revive 
some of the lapsed Papal edicts on the subject of musicians. 

(2) Contrast, of course, is the antidote to monotony, and 
the only drawback to its use is that, in the hands of the 
inexperienced, it is so liable to abuse, both in frequency and 
in degree. A sudden and unexpected change, one which 
compels a readjustment of mind in the listener, is, of course, a 
legitimate and artistic point for a composer to make ; but it 
is safe to say that violent contrast, as a normal means of 
expression, is characteristic of a low plane of intelligence. I 
am unwilling to drag a red herring across the discussion, but 
I should like to instance the accepted method of marking 
expression in our hymn-books — “emotion by battalions” 
Canon Ainger used to call it — as seeming to me, when not 
unnecessary and commonplace, always to err through 
advocating a suddenness of contrast which is theatrical and 
insincere. As an example of contrast at its best, I find that 
any fine set of variations (especially those of Brahms), lend 
themselves to an interesting analysis, and on the point of 
contrast are readily understood ; and they further serve the 
excellent critical purpose of showing that a variation is like 
the work of the best portrait painters, not merely a reproduc- 
tion, but a presentation of a familiar face in an aspect we 
may, up till then, have left unnoticed. 

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Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 171 

Lastly, I come to (3) Reticence, the study of which has in 
the last few years become more imperative than ever, 
“ Grace is,” as Herbert Spencer says, “ economy of motion,” 
and this fact alone condemns prodigality. But more than 
this, suggestion is the touchstone of all art, and, to say 
nothing of exaggeration, no work of art in any branch should 
say exactly and precisely all that there is to say. If it does, 
we get what the mathematicians call an “ identity,” and the 
logicians “traduction,” pure and simple. No doubt the 
weaker brethren like to have the meaning underlined, but to 
those who can find it there is, in such a work as the 
“ St. Matthew Passion,” a fine gossamer underthread of 
suggestion which rewards us with those little aspen thrills 
of appreciation at the very moments when the uninitiated are 
formulating their charges of academicism and coldness. 

Having now covered the ground which I marked out in my 
synopsis, I must conclude by disclaiming all originality — 
I might almost say by apologising for the want of it — and by 
trying to forestall the inevitable objection that no analysis 
will disimprison the mystery of beauty. The value of a 
discussion in ^Esthetics is not that it leads to a conclusion : 
that is not, to my mind, the real value of any philosophical 
discussion. But it widens the outlook, and gives permanent 
form and value to ideas which before were elusive and vague. 
An ideal is not a thing we desire to realise, but is' rather a 
guide, leading us to results of a value far beyond itself. Had 
the shepherds been eager to reach the guiding star, they might 
have passed by the cradle of Bethlehem. Music is the art 
which has to convey to us indescribable ideas through a 
wordless medium, and in its analysis there is no such 
ultimate thing as Truth ; but there are truths. And in our 
search for the former we happen on many of the latter, with 
the inestimable advantage, as Mr. Sully points out, that a 
review of our own aesthetic development is all in sight. We 
can trace our own mounting up — laborious, but sure — from 
one landing-stage to another one a little higher, where our 
gaze took a sweep that was wider and more serene ; where 
we suddenly found that the beauty we had been trying to put 
our finger on lies, as Goethe says, not in the thing itself, but 
in its significance ; and where, having finally crystallized for 
our guidance some of the general principles on which the 
great men have worked, we realize that true originality and 
progress are the gift of the men who can graft, not of those 
who desert the old for what is newer and more fantastic. 
Not the words of a Shakespeare, nor of the Psalmist himself, 
can embody the message that music brings to all who have 
ears to hear ; and to trace and examine the countless ways 
by which human hearts have been touched may, I earnestly 
believe, at least save us from false prophets, while it cannot 

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degrade the mystery which lies behind all art. For, to quote 
a recent writer, treating of the larger subject of human 
existence, “ The joy of all mysteries is the certainty which 
comes from their contemplation that there are many doors 
yet for the soul to of>en on her upward and inward way ; 
that we are at the threshold and not near the goal ; and 
then, like the glow of sunset, rises the hope that the 
grave, far from being the gate of death, may be indeed the 
gate of life.” 


The Chairman. — I am sure I express the feeling of all 
when I say how much we are indebted to the Lecturer for his 
very able and instructive Paper. For my own part, I felt 
oppressed by one of his first sentences, in which he said that 
the Englishman is at his worst in discussion ; however, unlike 
him, we have not the advantage of having our words written 
down, but have to express ourselves on the spur of the 
moment. I was reluctant to take the chair on this occasion, 
because I feared there was going to be an attack on my own 
performances as a critic. I am glad at least to have escaped 
that. I should like to be able to sit down for two or three 
hours, quietly to digest all that we have heard, because I feel 
it would be profitable if we could have a discussion on every 
page of it. But all we can do is to take up one or two points 
that struck us most forcibly. There are many notable 
sentences in the lecture, such as that of Dr. Creighton : “ Art 
is the veil of beauty over law,” or that of Dr. Buck’s own ; 
“ Taste is thought leading feeling.” That is most pregnant and 
suggestive. It is also very true that people have naturally 
some kind of scaffolding of criticism that we can surely build 
on. It is not true that people begin with no capacity what- 
ever for forming an opinion. They have a natural capacity ; 
but what the professional musician and the critic must try to 
do is to build on that scaffolding. The subdivisions of 
Class III. might be amended in one way ; that is to say, in 
Class B. Those sensuous, intellectual, and emotional attri- 
butes seem to me as if they belonged really to the intrinsic 
branch, because, to take an obvious instance, the Intermezzo 
of “ Cavalleria Rusticana ” is just as hysterical before a note 
of it has been actually sounded as afterwards. Its hysterical 
sloppiness is as inherent a quality as the nobility of a 
fugue subject of Bach would be. We daily critics must of 

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Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 173 

course feel ourselves roused and encouraged by what 
Dr. Buck has said ; but his point of view is far aloof from 
the ordinary round of daily concerts. We have to sit in 
judgment on the interpretations of music. Music much 
more rarely comes to us in the form of the merely printed 
page. The reviewing of music falls to the lot of a very small 
number of us. We have to deal with quite another set of 
qualities : they must be sensuous, intellectual, or emotional, 
according to the mood of the interpreter. You may have a 
sensuous song interpreted in an intellectual way ; and we 
ordinary people have to keep these two sides a little more 
separate than I think was suggested in the lecture, and 
therefore I should like to see another set of qualities more 
thoroughly extrinsic, I should say that, while those in A are 
intrinsic and B extrinsic, both are inherent ; they have little 
to do with the interpretative side. But the rest of the 
classification, I am sure, must have impressed everybody with 
its clearness, particularly the examples which he instanced 
in support of the classification. But beside the Zeitgeist, 
surely the Landgeist is to be embodied — I mean that 
nationality in musical style is almost as important as chrono- 
logical accuracy. You ought to be able to tell that a work is 
German or English or French, almost as easily as you can 
tell whether it is of the 17th or of the 20th century. We 
may be certain that the new Russian school if they had more 
digestible food would have written differently. We and the 
French write music of a different character. I must thank 
Dr, Buck very warmly for his remarks on many composers 
whom he has named, and particularly on the question of 
overscoring. The fatal mistake that many critics make, is to 
assume that if a thing is well scored it therefore is good. 
They attach no importance to the absolute inherent substance 
of the thing. I am also cordially in sympathy with what he 
said about cleverness being such a trap. His delightful 
admission about the associations of hymn tunes might be 
the text of a long discussion, though not quite suitable here. 
Everybody has his special attachment from association to 
some special tune that does not reach his own critical 
standard. I hope we shall have a good discussion on the 
deeper things of this Paper; for I have only been able to 
touch the surface of it. 

Mr. Gilbert Webb. — It is so very large a subject that 
one feels inclined to say nothing at all about it. What is 
wanted, and what is rather rare here as in everything else, is 
sound knowledge, wide reading, and as little prejudice as 
possible. I entirely agree with what Dr. Buck said, that if 
we could only be more widely interested we should be 
happier, because we should understand more. But it is 
natural that the majority of people should be taken with 

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superficial things, especially in the matter of orchestration. 
It appeals to them because it tickles their ears and astonishes 
them. But the value of a work rests, of course, on its form 
and on its rationality. Orchestration is only the frame, 
or should be regarded as only the frame, that contains 
the ideas. I think Dr. Buck’s division is admirable. In 
fact, I do not think there is much to be added, unless we 
took up each point separately, as our Chairman suggested, 
and that would take us a very long time. Especially valuable 
was what he said about balance and contrast. 

Mr. George Langley. — With reference, Mr. Chairman, to 
your criticism of the third subdivision of Dr. Buck’s paper, 
I am inclined to sympathise with you to some extent that the 
sensuous, intellectual, and emotional parts are inherent in the 
music ; but at the same time they differ greatly from the 
other three matters — grammar, subject-matter, and presenta- 
tion. Really, the sensuous, intellectual, and emotional 
elements are inherent in the music, and they are also purely 
extrinsic. In fact, they belong to both sides ; and they are 
brought out accordingly as the performer is sensuous, 
intellectual, or emotional. 

Mr. Edgar. — I am very glad that Dr. Buck has touched 
upon the disparagement of form that is nowadays so common. 
It seems to me a fatal error to slight the importance of form. 
For a composer not to pay due regard to that seems to me to 
be as great a sin as for a poet to disparage metre. A poet 
ought to gain increased grace and beauty in the presentation 
of his ideas from the laws of metre ; and in the same way a 
composer who respects the laws of form and does not try to 
break away from what long experience has shown to be 
useful convention, is enlisting in his work one of the greatest 
aids he could possibly find. My opinion of the very modern 
school is that there is too little regard to development and 
form. Many of the works that one hears nowadays are as if 
a clergyman, instead of taking a text and preaching on it and 
expounding it in its various aspects, were to present his 
congregation with a long string of texts and no sermon at all. 
I do not think that the march of development in musical 
composition is always going to be in the same direction. In 
history we remember that a more complex state of society 
has frequently been followed by a simpler one — a republic by 
an autocracy and so on ; and it is quite possible that a purer 
and a simpler taste may supervene in time to come in music. 

I am very glad to hear Dr. Buck’s criticism of orchestration. 
It seems to me that some of the orchestration of the present 
day is like a picture that should be all colour and no drawing. 
After all is said and done, the subject is the first thing, 
drawing the second, and colour the third. You can have a 
very good picture with no colouring at all — a monochrome. 

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Prolegomena to Musical Criticism. 175 

To overlay ideas with orchestration in which the theme is 
lost sight of seems to me an abuse of means. I do hope that 
greater regard to the conventions of form will be observed by 
younger composers, and that they will recognise that it is not 
in emancipating themselves recklessly from conventions that 
are the result of long usage and sanctioned by great experience 
that progress is to be made. Each one of the headings in 
this lecture might very well be the subject of an evening’s 
discussion. One of the drawbacks of such a full Paper is that 
we should like to have it before us for a day or two before we 
discussed it. It is impossible to do justice to a Paper that is 
full of matter as an egg is of meat. 

Dr. Buck. — There are just one or two things that I should 
like to say. In the first place, I felt it was rather impertinent 
to read the Paper at all, because it was not at all a contro- 
versial Paper, calculated to lead people to dispute ; but I did 
feel that I should like to offer to two or three persons in 
various parts of the world what I had been looking for in 
vain when I was a good deal younger, and that is a very 
elementary treatment of a very difficult subject. My work is 
occupied with boys. The boy is, as a rule, a much more 
musical animal than anyone gives him credit for being, and a 
much more intellectual animal. You get a boy into a music , 
lesson and ask him what is meant by an epic, or what are 
the qualifications of a lyric, or any fairly abstract question of 
that kind, and you get quite first-class answers from many a 
schoolboy. But if you ask him how a symphony should 
differ from a little intermezzo he is quite fogged. So I set to 
work to see if I could not give them some quite elementary 
framework of criticism. There is no necessary reason why 
they should not know as much about music as about poetry. 
The ordinary boy vastly prefers music to poetry. I find it is 
quite easy to give an ordinary boy an idea of what is the 
difference between good and bad music. You often cannot 
get him to like the good, but I do not think that matters. I 
do not mind a person liking what is bad so long as he does 
not stick up for it as being the good. The only thing I find 
necessary to consider is Mr. Fuller Maitland’s remark about 
the extrinsic and intrinsic. Of course they are all really 
intrinsic, but my object was to get a point of view from 
which you could get a boy to look at the subject, and that 
is entirely from the point of view of a listener. I often play 
ordinary little tags from a music-hall song to a class. 
Everybody smiles, and you get them to see that imitation, 
apart from being clever, is an interesting thing. I find it the 
simplest way to treat all qualities that do appeal to the 
listener extrinsically as being extrinsic ; then when they have 
got to a higher stage you can show them that they are not 
really extrinsic. I was rather fearful that people would find 

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out many gaps in my work. But of course you cannot cram 
everything into half an hour. There are by-paths and 
criticisms ; and I find it is extremely easy in such things as 
rhythm to talk to sets of boys (I daresay it is equally so 
with girls) about it without boring them. There was, for 
instance, a song about Mrs. 'Enery 'Awkins which the whole 
British public took to their bosoms at once solely on account 
of its rhythm. That is a good illustration, and so is “ Onward, 
Christian Soldiers.” Why does the ordinary person find so 
much enjoyment in that ? You can be extremely elementary 
on a subject of that kind. Then, with respect to melody, 

I find boys are very interested to find out that a melody has 
a curve, and that this has some influence on its actual merit. 
You can illustrate from the Choral Symphony, in which the 
melody of the greater portion of the vocal part is entirely 
conjunct. I do not say this gives them great insight all at 
once ; they are liable to regard the curve as the sole merit of 
the melody ; but such things right themselves in time. Then 
you can say a lot about interpretation. It is extremely easy 
to illustrate your meaning by playing a piece as it ought to 
go, and then as one of them would be likely to perform it. 
You can get a very amusing half-hour in this way. Mr. Fuller 
Maitland bagged one of the things I had on the tip of my 
tongue to say. The thing that always makes me timid is to 
have arrows shot at me as at St. Sebastian ; but quite 
genuinely 1 feel that before a learned Association I ought to 
apologise for the absolute simplicity of all the remarks I have 
put together. The only thing I can say is, that I did not 
intend it to be at all learned, and I am under no delusion as 
to there being anything original or valuable about it. I do not 
think it contains anything at all new, and I should never 
dream that it contains all that any student ought to know, 
though I think every student ought to know all that it 

Mr. Thelwall. — Would the Lecturer mind saying what he 
means by the statement that every melody has a curve ? 

Dr. Buck. — If you write out a melody on the blackboard 
and then join all the tops of the notes you get a curve. 

Mr. Thelwall. — I always look on these things from the 
point of view of the vibrations of the notes ; if you write 
out a melody according to the rates of vibration in vertical 
and according to the duration of the notes in horizontal lines, 
you thus get no regular curve. 

Dr. Buck. — But if you look at it from a little distance it 
would look like a curve. 

Mr. Thelwall. — If you take into consideration the mere 
vibrations and set them apart at equal distances, I grant you 
then get a curve. But how about if you take into considera- 
tion the lengths of the notes also ? 

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Prolegomtna to Musical Criticism. 177 

Dr. Buck. — The mathematical definition of a curve is that 
it is the result of an infinite number of straight lines. 

Mr. Thelwall. — But those straight lines follow each other 
in very regular order. 

Dr. Buck. — I do not think that I should care to explain 
the matter before a lot of people who were extremely 
particular or pragmatic ; but I do think you may talk of the 
way a melody goes up and down as a curve. 

Mr. Thelwall. — I can only say that is very different from 
the way I look at it myself. 

Dr. Buck. — You may look on the outline of a range of 
mountains as a curve although it may run straight for several 

[The meeting closed with a cordial vote of thanks to the 


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List of Contents for the sixth and seventh years of the 
publications of the International Musical Society. 

CB. aEn^ith; F.« French; O. a German; I. a Italian.] 

ZEITSCHRIFT (Monthly Journal). 

In addition to the leading Articles specified below, each number 
of the Zeitschrift (about fifty pages royal 8vo) contains information, 
written either in German, English, French, or Italian, according to source 
of origin, under the following heads: — (a) Music reports from various 
countries, by Special Correspondents, (i) News about Lectures, (c) News 
connected with Academical Institutions, (d) Occasional Notes, (e) Reviews 
of all important Books on Music appearing throughout the world, 
(/) Reviews on Music, (g) Catalogue of all important Articles appearing in 
the Musical Press throughout the world, about 200 monthly, (A) Record of 
Booksellers' Catalogues, (i) Queries and Answers among members, 
(J) Comments on previous articles by members, (A) Official proceedings of 


Part i. October, 1904. 

Proceedings of First International Congress of the Society, Leipzig, 
September 30, 1904 (G.). 

Report on the Reorganisation of the Society (G.). 

The Aims of the International Musical Society, an address (G.) — 
H. Kretzschmar (Berlin). 

New General Regulations of the Society (G.). 

A German Music College at Prague in i6i6 (G.) — E. Rychnovsky 

Music of the Caucasus (F.) — B. D. Korganow (Tiflis). 

Tchaikovsky’s E^ly Lyrical Operas (E.) — Rosa Newmarch (London). 
Swiss Festivals (G.) — A. Thurlmgs (Berne). 

Part 2. November, 1904. 

Bye-laws of the Governing Body of the Society (G.). 

Peter Cornelius, Man and Artist (G.) — E. Istel (Munich). 

Afirican Instruments (E.) — A. S. Rose (London). 

Second Bach Festival, at Leipzig (G.)— R. Munnich (Berlin). 

Second Music - Educational Congress at Berlin (G.) — G. Botchers 

Graun’s ■' Montezuma” (G.) — A. Heuss (Leipzig).. 

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Part 3. December, 1904. 

Bye-laws of the North German Section of the Society (G.). 

Address to Local Branches of the Society (G.) — H. Kretzschmar (Berlin). 
A lost work of Bach's (G.) — F. Spiro (Rome). 

Liszt as Pianoforte Writer (E.) — F. Niecks (Edinburgh). 

Should Bach’s Motetts be Accompanied ^ (G.) — A. Heuss (Leipzig). 
Music Piracy (E.) — C. Maclean (London). 

Part 4. January, 1903. 

Is Handel’s “St. John Passion’’ Genuine? (E.) — E. D. Rendall 

Mnsic and the Plastic Art (G.) — C. H. Richter (Genev^. 

A Musical Humoristic Poem (F.) — J.-G. Prod’homme (Paris). 

Part 5. February, 1903. 

An arrangement made with “ Rivista Musicale Italiana*' (G.). 

Proposal for a Second Congress at Amsterdam (G.) — D. F. Scheurleer 
(The Ha^e). 

Cultivation of Ancient Vocal Music (G.) — H. Leichtentritt (Berlin). 
Concerning the Waltz (E.) — F. Niecks (Edinburgh). 

The Mnsic of Classical Antiquity (G.) — H. Riemann (Leipzig). 

Part 6. March, 1903. 

Robert Eitner, deceased (G.) — A. Gohler (Leipzig). 

The Question of the Concerto (F.) — ^J.-G. Prod’homme (Paris). 

Regarding English Glees (E.) — J. Spencer Curwen (London). 

Instrumental Works of Melchior Franck and V. Hausmann (G.) — A. Heuss 

Part 7. April, 1903. 

Two prizes by the Dutch Musical Association (G.). 

Peter the Great and Russian Music (G.) — N. D. Bernstein (Petersburg). 
South African •' Clickers” (E.) — A. S. Rose (London). 

Part 8. May, 1903. 

Unpublished work by M. A. Chaipentier (F.) — H. Quittard (Paris). 
A 'Three-line Stave (G.) — T. Jerichau (Copenhagen). 

Regarding Carillons (E.) — W. W. Starmer (Tunbridge Wells). 

Part 9. June, 1903. 

Pianoforte Fantasia by Wagner (G.) — W. Niemann (j^ipzig). 
Liszt’s “ Faust” Symphony (E.) — E. Newman (Birmingham). 
Schein’s " Woodland Songs ’’ (G.) — R. Wustmann (Bozen). 

Part 10. July, 1903. 

A Correction about PianoforteTechnique(G ) — F. H. Clark (Rummelsburg). 
Beethoven’s Sonatas and the Three Styles (E.) — F. Niecks (Edinburgh). 
Music in Rome (G.) — F. Spiro (Rome). 

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Part ii. August, 1905. 

Weingartner’s interpretation of Beethoven's Symphonies (F.) — A. Boutarel 

Regarding Rhythm (E.) — T. H. Yorke Trotter (London). 

Two “ wrongly-solv^ ” Canons in Stainer’s “ Dufay " (G.) — H. Riemann 

Callus's Opus Musicum II. (G.) — H. Leichtentritt (Berlin). 

Part 12 . September, 1905. 

Present Perpetuation of the Chorale-Passion (G.) — M. Schneider (Berlin). 
English Folk-Songs (E.) — Lucy Broadwood (London). 

Old Student Music in Halle (G.) — H. Abert (Halle). 

The " Dufay ” Ctmons again (G.) — F. Ludwig (Potsdam) and H. Riemann 

Total — 523 pages.* 
• Fully indexed. 


• % 

Part i. October, 1903. 

Discussion on the “ Deppe " method (G.) — Eliz. Caland and F. H. Clark. 
As to a history of vocal method (G.) — H. Goldschmidt (Berlin). 

Rimsky Korsakoff (E.) — Rosa Newmarch (London). 

Two librettists of Gluck’s (F.) — J.-G. Prod’homme (Paris). 

Gaisser on the Easter " Heirmoi ” (G.) — H. Riemann (Leipzig). 

Part 2. November, 1903. 

On Gabriel Faur6 (F.) — J. Tiersot (Paris). 

The Emil Bohn Historical Concerts (G.) — A. Heuss (Leipzig). 

Tuning of Bells (E.) — H. Bewerunge (Maynooth). 

Personality in executive music (E.) — F. Gilbert Webb (London). 

Part 3. December, 1905. 

Race-Comparison in Music (G.) — E. M. v. Hombostel (Berlin). 
Worcester, Sheffield and Bristol Festivals (E.) — H. Thompson (Leeds). 

Part 4. January, 1906. 

Strasburg Gregorian Congress (G.) — F. Ludwig (Strasburg, Alsace). 

Old Organ Expressions (E.) — C. F. Abdy Williams (Milford). 

Two old canons misconstrued (G.) — H. Riemann (Leipzig). 

Part 5. February, 1906. 

The Passionate Element in Mozart (G.) — A. Heuss (Leipzig). 

'The British School on View (E). — C. Maclean (London). 

Riemann’s History reviewed (G.) — P. Wagner (Fribourg). 

Music Cataloguing (G.) — W. Altmann (Berlin). 

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i82 Appendix. 

Part 6. March, 1906. 

Cornelius on Wagner at Munich (G.) — G. Munzer (Berlinl. 

A letter by Simon Mayr (G.) — L. Schiedermair (Marburg). 

Sketch History of the Oratorio (E.) — Frederick Niecks (Edinburgh). 
Fifty years of Dresden Conservatorium (G.) — E. Reuss (Dresden). 
Hasse's ■' Conversion of St. Augustine " (G.) — A. Heuss (Leipzig). 
Street Cries ” prize offered by Dutch (G.). 

Part 7. April, 1906. 

Oldest libretto of “ Iphigenia in Tauris” (G.) — Max Arend (Leipzig). 
Competition Festival Movement in England (E.) — W. G. McNaught 

The wrongly-printed Metronome Mark in Beethoven's 9th Symphony (G.) 
— Chiles Villiers Stanford. 

Washington's March (E.) — O. G. Sonneck (Washington). 

Part 8, May, 1906. 

Notihcation of Basle Congress (G.). 

On Vincent D’Indy (F.) — M. D. Calvocoressi (Paris). 

The future of the Cadence? (E.) — E. Markham Lee (^ndon). 
Works of Hans Leo Hassler (G.) — H. Leichtentritt (Berlin). 
Music-Teachers' Congress in Berlin (G.) — G. Schunemann (Berlin). 

Part 9. June, 1906; 

The cultivation of the Guitar (G.) — A. Koczirz (Vienna). 

Vitality of artistic counterpoint (E.) — D. Tovey (London). 

Performances of old music in Berlin (G.) — H. Leichtentritt (Berlin). 

The Berlin Technical Exhibition (G.)— J. Wolf (Berlin). 

Part 10. July, 1906. 

Lederer on Geographical Origin of Polyphony (G.) — Fr. Ludwig (Strashurg, 

Forkel's " God save the King" (E.) — D. Tovey (London). 

Corneille and the French Opera (F.) — J.-G. Prod'homme (Paris). 

The Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein at Cologne (G.) — H. Hammer 

Whistler and Modern Music (E.) — H. Antclifife (Sheffield). 

Part ii. August, 1906. 

The Schumann Commemoration (G.) — H. Abert (Halle). 

Music Cataloguing (G.) — A. Gohler (Leipzig). 

Mozart’s Early Operas (E.)— Clifiord B. Edgar (Richmond). 
Litzmann’s Life of Clara Schumann (G.) — Elsa Bienenfeld (Vienna). 

Part 12. September, 1906. 

Further Notice as to Basle Congress (G.). 

Bach's Humour (E.) — D. Tovey (London). 

On Glazounoff (F.) — M. D. Calvocoressi (Paris). 

The Dalcroze Training Method (G.) — H. Hammer (Gottenborg). 
Music Cataloguing (G.) — H. Springer (Berlin). 

Total — 528 pages.* 

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Appendix, 183 

SAMMELBANDE (Quarterly Magazine). 


Part i. October — December, 1904. 

Two Accounts relating to the Chapel-Music of the King of France (F.) — 
M. Brenet (Paris). 

History of the Konigsberg Hof-Kapelle, 1578 — 1720 (G.) — A. Mayer- 
Reinach (Kiel). 

Schmeltzl's Liederbuch (1544) and the Quodlibet of the i6th century (G.) 
— E. Bienenfeld (Vienna). 

Louis Marchand, 17th century organist (F.) — A. Pirro (Paris). 

Alessandro Scarlatti's Harpsichord Music (e.) — J. S. Shedlock (London). 
Benda’s "accompanied" Monodramas (G.) — E. Istel (Munich). 

Part 2. January — March, 1905. 

The Principle of the Hydraulic Organ (E.) — C. Maclean (London). 

The lutenist Hans Judenkunig (G.) — A. Koczirz (Vienna). 

Jean Marie Leclair the elder (F.) — L. de la Laurencie (Paris). 

Emanuel Aloys Forster (G.) — K. Weigl (Vienna). 

Part 3. April — June, 1903. 

Church Songs of the old Ossero Diocese (G.)— L. Lach (Lussingrande). 
The didactic poem " Les £checs Amoureux," 14th century (G.) — H. Abert 

Bouzignac, a forgotten. French musician of the 17th century (F.) — 
H. Quittard (Paris). 

Alessandro Scarlatti’s Harpsichord Music (E.) — J. S. Shedlock (London). 
The Saint Cecilia Society of Avignon, i8th century (F.) — J.-G. Prod’homme 

Early American Operas (E.) — O. G. Sonneck (Washington). 

Benda's Monodrama (G.) — F. Brueckner (Leipzig). 

Part 4. July — September, 1905. 

History of the German Suite (G.)— H. Riemann (Leipzig). 

Purcell as Theorist (E.) — W. Barclay Squire (London). 

An original record of Parisian music, 1753 — 1757 (F.) — J.-G. Prod’homme 

The " Theatrical Agents ’’ satirical pamphlet of Simon Mayr (G.) — 
L. Schiedermair (Marburg). 

Bach at Halle in 1716 (G.)— M. Seiffert (Berlin). 

Review of J. Wolff’s History of Mensurable Notation 1250 — 1460 (G.) — 
F. Ludwig (Potsdam). 

Total — 641 pages.* 

• Fully indexed. 


Part i. October— December, 1905. 

Harp and Lyre in old Northern Europe (G.) — Hortense Panum 

Magister Z&viSe and his School ; the history of Bohemian music in 
XIV century (G.) — ZdenSk Nqedly (Prague). 

The Musicians of the Dauphin^ (F.) — J.-G. FVod’homme (Paris). 

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Johann Heugel, ca. 1500 — 1584-5 (G.) — Wilibald Nagel (Darmstadt). 

A Music Festival at Nuremberg in 1649 (G.) — Tobias Norlind (Gotland). 

An unknown early work by Johann Eccard (G.) — Ernst Praetorius 
(Charlottenburg) . 

The “ Altenburg " musical family in Thuringia (G.) — Amo Werner 

letters from Johann Wolff Frank regarding the Hamburg Opera (G.) — 
Amo Werner (Bitterfeld). 

On the Biography of Johann Adolf Hasse (G.) — Max Seiffert (Berlin). 

On the ■' History of Mensurable Notation” (G.) — Johannes Wolf (Berlin). 

Can exotic mel^ies be harmonized ? (G.) — Otto Abraham and E. M. von 
Hombostel (Berlin). 

Part a. January — March, 1906. 

The Bohemian School of Music (E.) — Alexander C. Mackenzie (London), 

On the History of the Suite (G ) — Tobias Norlind (Kalmar). 

Information from North German records on Cantors, Organists, Organ- 
builders, and State-musicians of olden times down to 1800 (G.) — 
Ernst Praetorius (Charlottenburg). 

A line of Musicians in the XVII. and XVIII. centuries ; the Rebel's (F.) — 
L. de la Laurencie (Paris). 

Pari 3. April — June, 1906. 

Instrumental Music of the XIV. — XVII. centuries illustrated in Sculpture 
(G.) — Hugo Leichtentritt (Berlin). 

Instmmental Ornamentation in the XVIII. century (G.) — Arnold Schering 

Historical Sketch of the Overture (E.) — Frederick Niecks (Edinburgh). 

Bow Bells (E.) — Charles Maclean (London). 

A School Festival in Halle-on-the-Saale, 1665 (G.) — Ernst Praetorius 

On G. Ph. Telemann’s Biography (G.) — Max Schneider (Berlin). 

"Observations of an old Viol-Player” (G.) — Ludwig Schiedermair 

"Malibran” (F.) — Martial Teneo (Paris). 

Part 4. July — September, 1906. 

Ancient Greek Music (G.) — Albert Thierfelder (Rostock). 

The Florence musical diagram (F.) — Ch. Em. Ruelle (Paris). 

Studies on the History of Polyphony in the Middle Ages. No. 3. On the 
rise and first development of the Latin and French Motett, in relation 
to general music (G.) — Friedrich Ludwig (Strasburg, Alsace). 

The Art-Song in the XIV. — XV. centuries {G .) — Hugo Riemann (Leipzig). 

English Instrumentalists at the Danish Court in the time of Shakespeare 
(E.)— V. C. Ravnf (Copenhagen). 

The Authorship of the Anthem " Lord, for Thy tender mercy’s sake ” (E.) — 
G. E. P. Arkwright (Newbury). 

Notes on the life of Giovanni Battista Bassani (F.) — Francesco Pasini 

Francesco Provenzale as dramatist (G.) — Hugo Goldschmidt (Berlin). 

A contribution to the Biography of J. K. Kerll (G.) — Hugo Botstiber 

The „ Leonore ou I'amour conjugal ” of Bouilly and Gaveaux. A propos 
of the late “Fidelio” centenary (F.) — J.-G. Prod’homme (Paris). 

What an organist of the XVII. century had to know (G.) — Tobias Norlind 

Total — 643 pages.* 

• Fully indexed. 

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